Flavonoids (Antioxidants Systems) in Higher Plants and Their Response to Stresses

  • Venkidasamy Baskar
  • Rajendran Venkatesh
  • Sathishkumar RamalingamEmail author


Flavonoids are a diverse group of secondary metabolites with a wide range of roles in mechanisms relating to UV protection, insect attraction, pathogen defense, symbiosis, variation of flower color, male fertility, pollination, allelopathy and auxin transport. Except bryophytes and pteridophytes, flavonoids are found only in higher plants. Flavonoids act as an antioxidative agent and scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated in plants during biotic and abiotic stresses. The ROS prevention by flavonoids is achieved through the inhibition of ROS-generating enzymes, the recycling of other antioxidants and the chelation of transition metal ions. Flavonoids are considered to be a secondary antioxidant system since they complement the function of other ROS scavenging systems when the reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. This chapter describes the role of flavonoids in response to various stresses in higher plants.


Flavonoids Reactive oxygen species Abiotic stress Biotic stress Antioxidant system 



This study was supported by a grant (Sanction No. PDF/2016/000750) from the Department of Science and Technology—Science and Engineering Research Board, Government of India. This study was also supported by Bharathiar University, UGC-SAP and DST-FIST.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkidasamy Baskar
    • 1
  • Rajendran Venkatesh
    • 1
  • Sathishkumar Ramalingam
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Plant Genetic Engineering Laboratory, Department of BiotechnologyBharathiar UniversityCoimbatoreIndia

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