Palaeoethnobotanical Contributions to Human-Environment Interaction

  • Gary W. Crawford
Part of the Interdisciplinary Contributions to Archaeology book series (IDCA)


Archaeological plant remains have informed environmental issues in archaeology in variety of ways, particularly human-environment interaction, palaeoenvironmental reconstruction, the impact of agriculture on the environment, the type of agriculture practiced, identification of habitats exploited by people, and the environmental aspects of agricultural origins. This chapter pays special attention to how plants may inform reciprocal interaction between people and the environment, an area of enquiry that is regionally emphasized, particularly among North American, anthropologically trained palaeoethnobotanists. This chapter also reviews the history and recent developments in environmental perspectives of palaeoethnobotany and relevant aspects of human ecology (ecological anthropology) such as niche construction and human behavioural ecology, resilience, ecological succession, and modelling. Case studies are provided from Japan (Jomon, Epi-Jomon, and Satsumon periods/cultures), the Lower Yangtze Valley, China Early Neolithic, and the Archaic and Late Woodland Periods on Ontario, Canada.


Palaeoethnobotany Archaeobotany Human ecology Niche construction Historical ecology Human behavioural ecology Resilience 


  1. Anderson, E. (1971). Plants, man and life. Los Angeles: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  2. Antolín, F., & Jacomet, S. (2014). Wild fruit use among early farmers in the Neolithic (5400–2300 cal bc) in the north-east of the Iberian Peninsula: An intensive practice? Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 24(1), 19–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balée, W. (2006). The research program of historical ecology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 35(1), 75–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barth, F. (1956). Ecologic relationships of ethnic groups in Swat, North Pakistan. American Anthropologist, 58(6), 1079–1089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baum, T., Nendel, C., Jacomet, S., Colobran, M., & Ebersbach, R. (2016). “Slash and burn” or “weed and manure”? A modelling approach to explore hypotheses of late Neolithic crop cultivation in pre-alpine wetland sites. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 25(6), 611–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bogaard, A., Hodgson, J., Nitsch, E., Jones, G., Styring, A., Diffey, C., et al. (2016). Combining functional weed ecology and crop stable isotope ratios to identify cultivation intensity: A comparison of cereal production regimes in Haute Provence, France and Asturias, Spain. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 25, 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Butzer, K. W. (1975). The ecological approach to archaeology: Are we really trying? American Antiquity, 40(1), 106–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Butzer, K. W. (1982). Archaeology as human ecology: Method and theory for a contextual approach. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crawford, G. W. (1983). Paleoethnobotany of the Kameda Peninsula Jomon, Anthropological papers no 73. Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  10. Crawford, G. W. (1987). Plant seeds excavated from the K135 site. In S.-s. K. Iinkai (Ed.), K135 Iseki (the K135 site) (pp. 565–581). Sapporo-shi Kyoiku Iinkai: Sapporo. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  11. Crawford, G. W. (1997). Anthropogenesis in prehistoric northeastern Japan. In K. Gremillion (Ed.), People, plants, and landscapes: Studies in paleoethnobotany (pp. 86–103). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  12. Crawford, G. W. (1999). Northeastern palaeoethnobotany: How are we doing? In J. Hart (Ed.), Northeast palaeoethnobotany (pp. 225–234). Albany: New York State Museum.Google Scholar
  13. Crawford, G. W. (2008). The Jomon in early agriculture discourse: Issues arising from Matsui, Kanehara, and Pearson. World Archaeology, 40(4), 445–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crawford, G. W. (2011a). Advances in understanding early agriculture in Japan. Current Anthropology, 53(S4), S331–S345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crawford, G. W. (2011b). Early rice exploitation in the lower Yangzi valley: What are we missing? The Holocene, 22(6), 613–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Crawford, G. W. (2014). Food production and niche construction in pre-contact Southern Ontario. Midcontinental Journal of Archaeology, Occasional Papers, 1, 135–160.Google Scholar
  17. Crawford, G. W., & Smith, D. G. (2003). Paleoethnobotany in the northeast. In P. E. Minnis (Ed.), People and plants in ancient eastern North America (pp. 172–257). Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books.Google Scholar
  18. Crawford, G. W., & Takamiya, H. (1990). The origins and implications of late prehistoric plant husbandry in northern Japan. Antiquity, 64(245), 889–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crawford, G. W., Smith, D. G., Desloges, J. R., & Davis, A. M. (1998). Floodplains and agricultural origins: A case study in south-central Ontario, Canada. Journal of Field Archaeology, 25(2), 123–137.Google Scholar
  20. Crawford, G. W., Saunders, D., & Smith, D. G. (2006). Pre-contact maize from Ontario, Canada: Context, chronology, variation, and plant association. In J. Staller, R. Tykot, & B. Benz (Eds.), Histories of maize: Multidisciplinary approaches to the prehistory, linguistics, biogeography, domestication, and evolution of maize (pp. 549–559). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  21. d’Alpoim Guedes, J. (2016). Model building, model testing, and the spread of agriculture to the Tibetan Plateau. Archaeological Research in Asia, 5, 16–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. D’Andrea, A. C. (1995). Archaeobotanical evidence for Zoku-Jomon subsistence at the Mochiyazawa site, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of Archaeological Science, 22, 583–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. D’Andrea, A. C., & Haile, M. (2002). Traditional emmer processing in highland Ethiopia. Journal of Ethnobiology, 22(2), 179–217.Google Scholar
  24. Denevan, W. M. (1992). The pristine myth: The landscape of the Americas in 1492. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 82(3), 369–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dimbleby, G. W. (1978). Plants and archaeology. Atlantic Highlands: Humanities Press.Google Scholar
  26. Dotte-Sarout, E. (2016). Evidence of forest management and arboriculture from wood charcoal data: An anthracological case study from two New Caledonia Kanak pre-colonial sites. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 26(2), 195–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ford, R. I. (1978). Ethnobotany: Historical diversity and synthesis. In R. I. Ford (Ed.), The nature and status of ethnobotany, Anthropological papers no. 67 (pp. 33–50). Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  28. Ford, R. I. (1979). Paleoethnobotany in American archaeology. In M. Schiffer (Ed.), Method and theory in American archaeology (Vol. 2, pp. 285–336). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Fuller, D. Q., Qin, L., Zhao, Z., Zheng, Y., Hosoya, L.-A., Chen, X., et al. (2011). Archaeobotanical analysis at Tian Luo Shan: Evidence for wild-food gathering, rice cultivation and the process of the evolution of morphologically domesticated rice. In School of Archaeology and Museology, Peking University and Zhejiang Provincial Institute of Archaeology (Ed.), Studies of eco-remains from Tianluoshan site (pp. 47–96). Beijing: Wenwu Press. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  30. Gaillard, M.-J., Sugita, S., Bunting, M. J., Middleton, R., Broström, A., Caseldine, C., et al. (2008). The use of modelling and simulation approach in reconstructing past landscapes from fossil pollen data: A review and results from the POLLANDCAL network. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 17(5), 419–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gillreath-Brown, A., & Bocinsky, R. K. (2017). A dialogue between empirical and model-based agricultural studies in archaeology. Journal of Ethnobiology, 37(2), 167–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gremillion, K. J. (2014). Human behavioral ecology and paleoethnobotany. In J. M. Marston (Ed.), Method and theory in paleoethnobotany (pp. 339–354). Boulder: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  33. Gunderson, L. H. (2000). Ecological resilience—In theory and application. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 31, 425–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Habu, J. (2015). Mechanisms of long-term culture change and human impacts on the environment: A perspective from historical ecology, with special reference to the early and middle Jomon periods of prehistoric Japan. The Quaternary Research, 54(5), 299–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hammett, J. (1992). The shapes of adaptation: Historical ecology of anthropogenic landscapes in the Southeastern United States. Landscape Ecology, 7(2), 121–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hammett, J. (1997). Interregional patterns of land use and plant management in native North America. In K. J. Gremillion (Ed.), People, plants, and landscapes: Studies in paleoethnobotany (pp. 195–216). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.Google Scholar
  37. Hanselka, J. K., & King, B. (2017). Modeling agricultural potential near the Ocampo Caves, Tamaulipas: Integrating archaeological and geospatial applications. Journal of Ethnobiology, 37(2), 260–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hart, J., Asch, D. L., Scarry, C. M., & Crawford, G. W. (2002). The age of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the northern Eastern Woodlands of North America. Antiquity, 76(292), 377–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hastorf, C. (1999). Recent research and innovations in paleoethnobotany. Journal of Archaeological Research, 7(1), 55–103.Google Scholar
  40. Heisey, R. M. (1997). Allelopathy and the secret life of Ailanthus altissima. Arnoldia, 57(3), 28–36.Google Scholar
  41. Hodder, I., & Hutson, S. (2003). Reading the past current approaches to interpretation in archaeology (3rd ed.p. xviii., 293 p.). Cambridge, UK/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Imamura, K. (1996). Prehistoric Japan: New perspectives on insular East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.Google Scholar
  43. Innes, J., Zong, Y., Chen, Z., Chen, C., Wang, Z., & Wang, H. (2009). Environmental history, palaeoecology and human activity at the early Neolithic forager/cultivator site at Kuahuqiao, Hangzhou, eastern China. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28(23–24), 2277–2294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jacobsen, T., & Adams, R. M. (1958). Salt and silt in ancient Mesopotamian agriculture. Science, 128(3334), 1251–1258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jiang, L. (2013). The Kuahuqiao site and culture. In A. P. Underhill (Ed.), A companion to Chinese archaeology (Vol. 24, pp. 537–554). Chichester/West Sussex: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Jiang, L., Zheng, Y. F., Fang, X. M., et al. (2004). Kuahuqiao. Beijing: Cultural Relics Publishing House. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  47. Jiang, L., Sun, H., XIe, L., Wang, J., Wang, C., Xu, Y., et al. (2016). Pujiang Shangshan. Beijing: Cultural Relics Press. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  48. Johnston, R. B. (Ed.). (1984). The McIntyre site: Archaeology, subsistence and environment, (National Museum of Man Mercury Series): Archaeological Survey of Canada Paper No. 26. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.Google Scholar
  49. Kobayashi, T., Kaner, S., & Nakamura, O. (2004). Jomon reflections: Forager life and culture in the prehistoric Japanese archipelago. Oxford: Oxbow.Google Scholar
  50. Lee, G.-A., & Crawford, G. W. (2011). Archaeological soybean (Glycine max) in East Asia: Does size matter? PLoS One, 6(11), e26720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Letcher, S. G., Lasky, J. R., Chazdon, R. L., Natalia, N., Joseph Wright, S., Meave, J. A., Pérez-García, E. A., Muñoz, R., Romero-Pérez, E., Andrade, A., Andrade, J. L., Balvanera, P., Becknell, J. M., Bentos, T. V., Bhaskar, R., Bongers, F., Boukili, V., Brancalion, P. H. S., César, R. G., Clark, D. A., Clark, D. B., Craven, D., DeFrancesco, A., Dupuy, J. M., Finegan, B., González-Jiménez, E., Hall, J. S., Harms, K. E., Hernández-Stefanoni, J. L., Hietz, P., Kennard, D., Killeen, T. J., Laurance, S. G., Lebrija-Trejos, E. E., Lohbeck, M., Martínez-Ramos, M., Massoca, P. E. S., Mesquita, R. C. G., Mora, F., Muscarella, R., Paz, H., Pineda-García, F., Powers, J. S., Quesada-Monge, R., Rodrigues, R. R., Sandor, M. E., Sanaphre-Villanueva, L., Schüller, E., Swenson, N. G., Tauro, A., Uriarte, M., van Breugel, M., Vargas-Ramírez, O., Viani, R. A. G., Wendt, A. L., Bruce Williamson, G., & Zhou, S. (2015). Environmental gradients and the evolution of successional habitat specialization: a test case with 14 Neotropical forest sites. Journal of Ecology, 103(5), 1276–1290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Liu, D. L., & Lovett, J. V. (1993). Biologically active secondary metabolites of barley I. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 19(10), 2217–2230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lopes, P., & Begossi, A. (2009). Current trends in human ecology. Cambridge Scholars Pub: Newcastle upon Tyne.Google Scholar
  54. López-Sáez, J. A., Glais, A., Robles-López, S., Alba-Sánchez, F., Pérez-Díaz, S., Abel-Schaad, D., et al. (2016). Unraveling the naturalness of sweet chestnut forests (Castanea sativa Mill.) in central Spain. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 26(2), 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Madella, M., Lancelotti, C., & Savard, M. (2014). Ancient plants and people: Contemporary trends in archaeobotany. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  56. Maher, L. A., Banning, E. B., & Chazan, M. (2011). Oasis or mirage? Assessing the role of abrupt climate change in the prehistory of the southern Levant. Cambridge Archaeological Journal, 21(01), 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Marston, J. M. (2011). Archaeological markers of agricultural risk management. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 30(2), 190–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Marston, J. M., d’Alpoim Guedes, J. & Warinner, C. (2014). Method and theory in paleoethnobotany. Boulder: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  59. McCay, B. J. (2008). An intellectual history of ecological anthropology. In B. B. Walters, B. J. Mccay, P. West, & S. Lees (Eds.), Against the grain: The Vayda tradition in human ecology and ecological anthropology (pp. 11–26). Lanham: Altamira Press.Google Scholar
  60. Mehl, I. K., & Hjelle, K. L. (2015). From deciduous forest to open landscape: Application of new approaches to help understand cultural landscape development in western Norway. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 25(2), 153–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Messner, T. C., & Stinchcomb, G. E. (2014). Peopling the environment: Interdisciplinary inquiries into socioecological systems incorporating palaeoclimatology and geoarchaeology. In J. M. Marston (Ed.), Method and theory in paleoethnobotany (pp. 257–274). Boulder: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  62. Miller, N. (2014). Vegetation proxy data and climate reconstruction. In M. Madella, C. Lancelotti, & M. Savard (Eds.), Ancient plants and people: Contemporary trends in archaeobotany (pp. 120–134). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  63. Minnis, P. (1978). Paleoethnobotanical indicators of prehistoric environmental disturbance: A case study. In R. I. Ford (Ed.), The nature and status of ethnobotany, Anthropological papers, 67 (pp. 347–366). Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  64. Monckton, S. G. (1992). Huron paleoethnobotany, Ontario archaeological reports 1. Toronto: Ontario Heritage Foundation.Google Scholar
  65. Nagaoka, L., & Wolverton, S. (2016). Archaeology as ethnobiology. Journal of Ethnobiology, 36(3), 473–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Noshiro, S., & Sasaki, Y. (2014). Pre-agricultural management of plant resources during the Jomon period in Japan—A sophisticated subsistence system on plant resources. Journal of Archaeological Science, 42, 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Oas, S. E., D’Andrea, A. C., & Watson, D. J. (2015). 10,000 year history of plant use at Bosumpra Cave, Ghana. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 24(5), 635–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Odling-Smee, F. J., Laland, K. N., & Feldman, M. W. (2003). Niche construction: The neglected process in evolution, Monographs in population biology (Vol. 37). Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  69. Odum, E. P. (1963). Fundamentals of ecology (2d ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  70. Odum, E. P. (1969). The strategy of ecosystem development. Science, 164(3877), 262–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Odum, E. P. (1975). Ecology: The link between the natural and the social sciences, Modern biology series (2d ed.). New York: Holt.Google Scholar
  72. Odum, E. P. (1983). Basic ecology. Philadelphia: Saunders College Pub.Google Scholar
  73. Ounjian, G. (1998). Glen Meyer and Neutral palaeoethnobotany. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto.Google Scholar
  74. Pan, Y. (2017). A human ecological perspective on the origin of agriculture in the lower reaches of the Yangzi Valley. Shanghai: Shanghai Lexicographical Publishing House. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  75. Pan, Y., Zheng, Y., & Chen, C. (2017). Human ecology of the early Neolithic Kuahuqiao culture in East Asia. In J. Habu (Ed.), Encyclopedia of east and southeast Asian archaeology (p. TBA). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.Google Scholar
  76. Pędziszewska, A., & Latałowa, M. (2015). Stand-scale reconstruction of late Holocene forest succession on the Gdańsk Upland (N. Poland) based on integrated palynological and macrofossil data from paired sites. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 25(3), 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ramsay, J., & Holum, K. (2015). An archaeobotanical analysis of the Islamic period occupation at Caesarea Maritima, Israel. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 24(6), 655–671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rappaport, R. A. (1971). The flow of energy in an agricultural society. Scientific American, 225(3), 116–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Redman, C. L. (1999). Human impact on ancient environments. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  80. Redman, C. L. (2005). Resilience theory in archaeology. American Anthropologist, 107(1), 70–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Redman, C. L., & Kinzing, A. P. (2003). Resilience of past landscapes: Resilience theory, society, and the longue durée. Conservation Ecology, 7(1), 14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Reice, S. R. (1994). Nonequilibrium determinants of biological community structure. American Scientist, 82(5), 424–435.Google Scholar
  83. Renfrew, J. M. (1973). Palaeoethnobotany: The prehistoric food plants of the Near East and Europe. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Riehl, S. (2014). Significance of prehistoric weed floras for the reconstruction of relations between environment and crop husbandry practices in the Near East. In M. Madella, C. Lancelotti, & M. Savard (Eds.), Ancient plants and people : Contemporary trends in archaeobotany (pp. 135–152). Tucson: University of Arizona Press.Google Scholar
  85. Rindos, D. (1984). The origins of agriculture: An evolutionary perspective. San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  86. Saqalli, M., Salavert, A., Bréhard, S., Bendrey, R., Vigne, J.-D., & Tresset, A. (2014). Revisiting and modelling the woodland farming system of the early Neolithic Linear Pottery Culture (LBK), 5600–4900 b.c. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 23(S1), 37–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sasaki, Y., & Noshiro, S. (2004). Utilization of forest resources in the Late Jomon Period deduced from wooden remains for water usage at the Shimo-yakebe site, Tokyo, Japan. Japanese Journal of Historical Botany, 12(1), 37–46. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  88. Sato, Y., Yamanaka, S., & Takahashi, M. (2003). Evidence for Jomon plant cultivation based on DNA analysis of chestnut remains. In J. Habu, J. M. Saveille, S. Koyama, & H. Hongo (Eds.), Hunter-gatherers of the North Pacific Rim, Senri ethnological studies 63 (pp. 187–197). Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology.Google Scholar
  89. Saunders, D. (2002). Princess point palaeoethnobotany. Ph.D., University of Toronto, Toronto.Google Scholar
  90. Sayre, M. P., & Bruno, M. C. (2017). Social perspectives on ancient lives from paleoethnobotanical data. Gewerbestrasse: Springer International Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Shu, J., Wang, W., Jiang, L., & Takahara, H. (2010). Early Neolithic vegetation history, fire regime and human activity at Kuahuqiao, Lower Yangtze River, East China: New and improved insight. Quaternary International, 227(1), 10–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smith, B. D. (2012). A cultural niche construction theory of initial domestication. Biological Theory, Online, 6, 260–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Smith, B. D. (2014). Documenting human niche construction in the archaeological record. In J. M. Marston (Ed.), Method and theory in paleoethnobotany (pp. 355–370). Boulder: University Press of Colorado.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, D. G., & Crawford, G. W. (1997). Recent developments in the archaeology of the princess point complex in Southern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Archaeology, 21, 9–32.Google Scholar
  95. Sundjordet, S. (2017). Let them plant their own: Implications of interactive crop-loss processes during drought in Hopi maize fields. Journal of Ethnobiology, 37(2), 241–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Takase, K. (2014). Use of resources and land in the Epi-Jomon culture: Perspectives based on the comparative study with adjacent cultures. National Institute of History and Folklore, 185, 15–62. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  97. VanDerwarker, A. M., Bardolph, D. N., Hoppa, K. M., Thakar, H. B., Martin, L. S., Jaqua, A. L., et al. (2015). New world paleoethnobotany in the new millennium (2000–2013). Journal of Archaeological Research, 24(2), 125–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Vayda, A. P. (1969). An ecological approach in cultural anthropology. Bucknell Review, 17(1), 112–119.Google Scholar
  99. Vayda, A. P., & Mccay, B. J. (1975). New directions in ecology and ecological anthropology. Annual Review of Anthropology, 4, 293–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Walker, I. J., Desloges, J. R., Crawford, G. W., & Smith, D. G. (1997). Floodplain formation processes and archaeological implications, Lower Grand River, Southern Ontario. Geoarchaeology, 12(8), 865–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Weisskopf, A. (2016). A wet and dry story: Distinguishing rice and millet arable systems using phytoliths. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, 26(1), 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Willey, G. R., & Sabloff, J. A. (1993). A history of American archaeology (3rd ed.). New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
  103. Winterhalder, B., & Smith, E. A. (2000). Analyzing adaptive strategies: Human behavioral ecology at twenty-five. Evolutionary Anthropology, 9(2), 51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wright, P. J. (2010). Methodological issues in paleoethnobotany: A consideration of issues, methods, and cases. In A. M. VanDerwarker & T. M. Peres (Eds.), Integrating zooarchaeology and paleoethnobotany: A consideration of issues, methods, and cases (pp. 37–64). New York: Springer New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yarnell, R. A. (1963). Reciprocity in cultural ecology. Economic Botany, 17(4), 333–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Yarnell, R. A. (1964). Aboriginal relationships between culture and plant life in the Upper Great Lakes Region, Anthropological papers no. 23. Ann Arbor: Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan.Google Scholar
  107. Yarnell, R. A. (1965). Implications of distinctive flora on pueblo ruins. American Anthropologist, 67, 662–674.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Yarnell, R. A. (1982). Problems of interpretation of archaeological plant remains of the eastern woodlands. Southeastern Archaeology, 1(1), 1–7.Google Scholar
  109. Yarnell, R. A. (1984). The McIntyre site: Late archaic plant remains from Southern Ontario. In R. B. Johnston (Ed.), The McIntyre site: Archaeology, subsistence and environment, National Museum of man mercury series, paper no. 126 (pp. 87–111). Ottawa: National Museums of Canada.Google Scholar
  110. Zeder, M. A. (2016). Domestication as a model system for niche construction theory. Evolutionary Ecology, 30(2), 325–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zhejiang Provincial Museum, N. H. S. (1978). A study of animal and plant remains unearthed at Hemudu. Kaogu, 1, 95–111. (in Chinese).Google Scholar
  112. Zheng, Y., Sun, G., Qin, L., Li, C., Wu, X., & Chen, X. (2009). Rice fields and modes of rice cultivation between 5000 and 2500 BC in east China. Journal of Archaeological Science, 36(12), 2609–2616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Zheng, Y., Crawford, G. W., & Chen, X. (2014). Archaeological evidence for peach (Prunus persica) cultivation and domestication in China. PLoS One, 9(9), e106595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Zheng, Y., Crawford, G. W., Jiang, L., & Chen, X. (2016). Rice domestication revealed by reduced shattering of archaeological rice from the Lower Yangtze valley. Scientific Reports, 6, 28136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Zong, Y., Chen, Z., Innes, J. B., Chen, C., Wang, Z., & Wang, H. (2007). Fire and flood management of coastal swamp enabled first rice paddy cultivation in east China. Nature, 449(7161), 459–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of Toronto MississaugaMississaugaCanada

Personalised recommendations