The Lack of Regulation of Chemical Mixtures and Its Legal Consequences in the Baltic Sea Area

  • Lena Gipperth
  • Thomas Backhaus
Part of the MARE Publication Series book series (MARE, volume 18)


The chapter discusses the void in legal protection of the Baltic Sea from the combined effects of multiple chemicals. While individual chemicals are subject to detailed regulation at international and EU-level, combinations sometimes fall outside the scope of any rules. The article analyses to what extent EU laws consider potential combination effects of chemicals and how, which types of chemical exposure is considered and how combination effects of chemicals in the Baltic Sea could be regulated in the future.


Chemicals Combination effects Chemical status Water framework directive REACH Regulation Marine strategy framework directive Baltic Sea 

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of LawUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Biological & Environmental SciencesUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden

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