Regulating Eutrophication – Flexible Legal Approaches and Environmental Governance in the Baltic Sea Area
The chapter discusses the design of regulatory instruments and structures adopted to deal with eutrophication in the Baltic Sea area. New forms of regulations have been introduced in the past decades and what may appear as regulatory gaps or uncertain obligations is often closely connected to the developing idea of an ecosystem approach to regulation, in international as well as EU law. The chapter assesses what this concept actually entails in legal terms and whether the demand for regulation and enforcement of measures to reduce the eutrophication is sufficiently and effectively covered in the existing regulatory framework. It also reviews benefits and obstacles linked to ecosystem-based regulation and assesses whether the concept provides is effective in abating environmental problems.