Indian Spices pp 249-276 | Cite as

Post Harvest Technology and Value Addition of Spices

  • Ankan Das
  • Amit Baran Sharangi
Chapter

Abstract

Spices not only help imparting taste, flavour, aroma and colour but also act as a preservative by preventing the spoilage of various food and beverage products. They are huge reservoir of essential oils and aromatic constituents which are of great demand in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, both in national and international trade. They also possess nutritional, antimicrobial, antioxidant and pharmaceutical properties and, hence, regarded as one of the most functionally important food ingredients. Efforts are, therefore, directed towards enhancing area, increasing productivity and improving quality of spices. However, in today’s scenario, real challenges confronting us not only on how to sustain the productivity of spices but also on how to minimize their losses. Post harvest management of spices appears to be more crucial here. Most of the freshly harvested spices are very high in their moisture content, highly perishable and susceptible to microbial contamination. Steps like harvesting at optimum stage, proper transportation to processing units, cleaning, blanching, treating with recommended chemicals, dehydration, packaging and storage or processing leading those to value added products etc. are very much crucial so far as reduction of post harvest losses are concerned. The irony is that due to lack of proper knowledge, awareness and improper technology dissemination, the post-harvest management, especially in the developing countries is still not up to the mark. Therefore it is necessary to process the spices by exploiting both classical and innovative post-harvest technology to ensure their long term preservation and optimum utilization.

Keywords

Spices Post harvest Processing Preservation Value addition 

References

  1. Akbulut A, Durmus A (2009) Thin layer solar drying and mathematical modeling of mulberry. Int J Energy Res 33:687–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Balasubramanian S, Roselin P, Singh KK, Zachariah J, Saxena SN (2016) Postharvest processing and benefits of black pepper, coriander, cinnamon, fenugreek and turmeric spices. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 56:1–44Google Scholar
  3. Beaulieu JC, Gorny JR (2002) Fresh-cut fruits. In: Gross KC, Wang CY, Saltveit M (eds) Handling, transportntion and storage of fruits, vegetables, and florist and nursery stock. Agr. Hndbk. 66. U.S. Dept Agr., Washington, DC. http://www.ba.ars.usda.gov/hb66/index.html
  4. Beuchat LR (2000) Use of sanitizers in raw fruit and vegetables processing. In Alzamora SM, Tapia MS, Lopez-Malo A (eds). Minimally Processed Fruits and Vegetables. Fundamental Aspects and Applications. Aspen Publ., Gaithersburg MD. Chapter 4, pp 63–78Google Scholar
  5. Beveridge TJ (2003) Maturity and quality grades for fruits and vegetables In: Charkravorty A, Mujumdar AS, Ramaswamy HS (eds). Handbook of postharvest technology: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tea and spices. CRC Press/Taylor & Francis Group, Chapter 17 pp 485–503Google Scholar
  6. Brecht JK (1995) Physiology of lightly processed fruits and vegetables. Hort Sci 30:18–22Google Scholar
  7. Datta S, Guha S, Sharangi AB (2015) Value addition in spice crops. In: Sharangi AB, Datta S (eds) Value addition of horticultural crops: recent trends and future directions. Springer India Pvt Ltd, New Delhi/Heidelberg/New York/Dordrecht/London, pp 59–82Google Scholar
  8. Desikachar HSR, Srinivasan M, Subrahmanyan V (1959) Processing of turmeric. Res India 4:172Google Scholar
  9. Dikbasan T (2007) Determination of the effective parameters for drying of apples, master of science in energy engineering. Izmir Institute of Technology, IzmirGoogle Scholar
  10. Doymaz I (2004) Effect of pre-treatments using potassium metabisulphide and alkaline ethyl oleate on the drying kinetics of apricots. Biosyst Eng 89:281–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. El-Beltagy A, Gamea GR, Amer Essa AH (2007) Solar drying characteristics of strawberry. J Food Eng 78:456–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eslami M, Bayat M, ASM N, Sabokbar A, Anvar AA (2016) Effect of polymer/nanosilver composite packaging on long-term microbiological status of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Soudi. J Biol Sci 23(3):341–347Google Scholar
  13. Esper A, Mühlbauer W (1998) Solar drying-an effective means of food preservation. Renew Energy 15:95–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Fernandes LP, Ehen Z, Moura TF, Novak C, Sztatisz J (2004) Characterization of lippia sidoides oil extract- β-cyclodextrin complexes using combined thermo-analytical techniques. J Therm Anal Cal 78:557–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Francis GA, O’Beirne D (2002) Effects of vegetable type and antimicrobial dipping on survival and growth of Listeria innocua and E. coli. Int J Food Sci Technol 37(6):711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Given PS Jr (2009) Encapsulation of favours in emulsions for beverages. Curr Opin Colloid 14:43–47Google Scholar
  17. Hartulistiyoso E, Rusli MS, Lucke W (1998) Post harvest technology and processing of spices in Indonesia. Landtechnik 53(4):252–253Google Scholar
  18. Hatamipour MS, Kazemi HH, Nooralivand A, Nozarpoor A (2007) Drying Characterestics of six varieties of sweet potaoes in different dryers. Food Bioprod Process 85(3):171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Indian Institute of Spice Research (2013) Vision 2050. pp 1–37Google Scholar
  20. Indriamma AR (2002) Chapter 12. Packaging aspects of spices and spice products. In: Plastics in food packaging. Food Packaging Technology Department, Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysore, pp 206–222Google Scholar
  21. Irtwange SV (2006) Application of modified atmosphere packaging and related technology in postharvest handling of fresh fruits and vegetables. Agric Eng Int 4:1–12Google Scholar
  22. Kingsly ARP, Singh R, Goyal RK, Singh DB (2007) Thin-layer drying behaviour of organically produced tomato. Am J Food Technol 2:71–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kostaropoulos AE, Saravacos GD (1995) Microwave pre-treatment for sun-dried raisins. J Food Sci 60:344–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Krishnamoorthy V, Meenakshi N, Madalageri MB (2002) Herbal spices – a review. J Med Aromatic Plant Sci 24(1):123–131Google Scholar
  25. Lease JG, Lease EJ (1956) Effect of fat-soluble antioxidants on the stability of red colour of peppers. Food Technol 10:403Google Scholar
  26. Modi VK, Siddegowda GS, Sakhare PZ, Mahendrakar NS, Narasimha Rao D (2006) Re-processed spice mix formulation and changes in its quality during storage. LWT-Food Sci Technol 39:613–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mozhdehi FJ, Sedaghat N, YasiniArdakani SA (2017) Effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the moisture and sensory property of saffron. MOJ Food Process Technol 5(1):00115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Muthukumaran A, Ratti C, Raghavan VGS (2008) Foam-mat freeze drying of egg white—mathematical modelling. Part II. Freeze drying and modelling. Dry Technol 26:513–518Google Scholar
  29. Parish ME, Beuchat LR, Suslow TV, Harris LJ, Garrett EH, Farber JN, Busta FF (2003) Methods to Reduce/Eliminate Pathogens from Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2:161–173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1541-4337.2003.tb00033.x
  30. Pesek CA, Wilson LA (1986) Spice quality: effects of cryogenic and ambient grinding on color. J Food Sci 51(5):386–1388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pruthi JS (1980) Spices & condiments chemistry, microbiology and technology. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  32. Pruthi JS, Varkey G, Dhat AV (1987) Post harvest technology of cinnamon Indian, Arecanut Spices and Cocoa 1:87Google Scholar
  33. Pruthi JS (1991a) Major spices of India crop management and post-harvest technology. Indian Council of Agricultural and Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  34. Pruthi JS (1991b) Minor spices and condiments crop management and post-harvest technology. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  35. Pruthi JS (1991c) Spices and condiments 7th Edn. 1991. National Book Trust. postharvest technology of cinnamon. Indian J Arecanut Spices Cocoa 1:8Google Scholar
  36. Pruthi JS (1992) Post-harvest technology of spices: pre-treatments, curing, cleaning, grading and packing. J Spices Aromatic Crops 1(1):1–29Google Scholar
  37. Purseglove JW, Brown EG, Green CL, Robbins SRJ (1981) Spices, vol I & II. Longman, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Reineccius GA, Peppard TL (2002) Encapsulation of flavors using cyclodextrins: comparison of flavor retention in alpha, beta and gamma types. J Food Sci 67:3271–3279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shishehgarha F, Makhlouf J, Ratti C (2002) Freeze-drying characteristics of stawberries. Dry Technol 20:131–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Spices Board (2017) Review of export performance of spices during 2016–17. http://www.indianspices.com/export/major-itemwise-export Accessed on 04.09.2017
  41. Topno PN, Vinothini JSH, Varadaiah V, Sheshagiri SH, Srinivas RM, Naidu MM (2013) Ginger-garlic paste in retort pouches and its quality. J Food Process Engg 36(1):1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. United Nations Industrial Development Organization and Food and Agricultural Organizations of the United Nations (2005) Herbs, spices and essential oils, post harvest operations in developing countries. Vienna International Centre, Vienna, pp 1–61Google Scholar
  43. Van Blaricum LO, Martin JA (1951) Retarding the loss of red colour in cayenne pepper with oil-soluble antioxidants. Food Technol 5:337Google Scholar
  44. Watada AE, Qi L (1999) Quality of fresh-cut produce. Postharvest Biol Technol 15:201–205Google Scholar
  45. Whitaker JR (1994) Principles of enzymology for the food sciences, 2nd edn. Marcel Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  46. Wills RBH, McGlasson WB, Graham D, Lee TH, Hall EG (1989) Postharveest-an introduction to the physiology and handling of fruit and vegtables, 3rd edn. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, p 46Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ankan Das
    • 1
  • Amit Baran Sharangi
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Agricultural Science, University of CalcuttaKolkataIndia
  2. 2.Department of Plantation, Spices, Medicinal and Aromatic Crops, Faculty of HorticultureBidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya (Agricultural University)MohanpurIndia

Personalised recommendations