Advertisement

Indian Spices pp 421-438 | Cite as

Exploration and Extrapolation of Extension Strategy for Promotion of Spice Production and Processing in India

  • K. Pradhan
Chapter

Abstract

In the post globalisation and free trade liberalisation era, the world is experiencing a great revolution in its economic affairs involving all the nations, which is deemed to be the resultant of the open market policy across the world. India being one of the largest pillars of the world economy could not escape the effect of this change. India is also experiencing a dramatic change in its economic sectors – agriculture, industry and service. Since the inception of civilization, India has been recognised as the “Spice Bowl of the World”. The conquering tribes hailing from different corners of the world invaded India with one goal – to take advantage of the rich natural wealth, and Indian spices. The earliest in scripts in India on Spices is found in the Vedas (around 6000 BC). Even the Indian spices played a significant role in strengthening its economic condition during ancient and medieval ages. With time, the spice trade grew in leaps and bounds. Now, India is the largest producer, consumer and exporter of spices in the world with a 46% share by volume and 23% share by value, in the world market. After conceiving the potentiality of spices in case of flavouring food, preparing medicine and earning foreign exchequer the need of promoting this crop in India is essential need of the hour through appropriate extension strategies as this crop is still grown in some pockets of India sporadically. Rural women in developing countries hold the key to many of the planets developmental system for securing the food, protecting the agro biodiversity and eradicating the poverty in a nut shell at local to global level. Most of the women perform various types of activities for the enhancement of their family livelihood status is considered as the biggest unorganized sector where large number of rural women takes part actively. While women have always played a key role in development perspective, their importance both as workers and as managers of farms and homes has been growing as an increasing number of men have been migrating to other localities. In this perspective spice crop can play a pivotal role in case of women empowerment through its production, processing and marketing by developing and managing spice led enterprise. Keeping all these in view, the present chapter is envisaged to explore the appropriate extension strategies for promotion of spice production, processing and marketing by putting emphasis on the paradigm shift from production led to market led extension, research extension linkage by incorporating indigenous knowledge, utilisation of knowledge information system and information communication technology and gender mainstreaming and women empowerment.

Keywords

Spices promotion Global demand Market led extension Indigenous knowledge Information Communication Technology Women empowerment 

References

  1. Acharya SK, Pradhan K, Adhikary MM (2008) Socialisation of technology in agriculture (a paradigm shift from TOT). Agro-tech publishing House, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  2. Acharya SK, Pradhan K, Choudhury P, Sharangi AB (2015) Introduction. In: Sharangi AB, Dutta S (eds) Value addition of horticultural crops: recent trends and future directions. Springer(India) Pvt Ltd, New Delhi, pp 1–12Google Scholar
  3. Allahyari MS (2008) Extensionists’ attitude toward sustainable agriculture in Iran. J Appl Sci 8:3761–3763CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2014) Indian horticulture database, National Horticulture Board, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, Gurgaon, India. http://nhb.gov.in/
  5. Begum A (2002) Views on women’s subordination and autonomy: Blumerg re-visited. Empowerment 9:85–96Google Scholar
  6. Das R (2017) Restructuring women empowerment in Agricultural Innovation System. Unpublished PhD thesis. Department of Agricultural Extension, Uttar BangaKrishiViswavidyalaya, West Bengal, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Flora BC (1997a) Enhancing community capitals: the optimization equation. Rural Development News 21(1):12–23Google Scholar
  8. Flora BC (1997b) Building social capital: the importance of entrepreneurial, social infrastructure. Rural Development News 21(2):76–89Google Scholar
  9. Freedman P (2003) Spices: how the search of flavors influenced our world. Yale Centre for the study of globalisation. www.yaleglobal.yale.edu
  10. Gasteyer SP, Flora CB (2002) Community participation for conservation and development of natural resources. A summary of literature and report of research findingsGoogle Scholar
  11. Gibson D, Smilor R (1991) KeyVariables in technology transfer: a field-study based empirical analysis. J Eng Technol Manag 8:287–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Pradhan K, Das R (2017) Exploration and interpretation of women stakeholders’ overall involvement in women led agricultural innovation system (AIS). Indian Res J Extn Educ 17(3):74–81Google Scholar
  13. Pradhan K, Devi YL, Das R, Saha A, Sarkar V, Ganguly B (2017) Focusing on the involvement of women dairy farmers in decision making process at Manipur, Indian research. J Extn Educ 17(1):1–4Google Scholar
  14. Qamar MK (2002) Global trends in agricultural extension challenges facing Asia and the Pacific region. Sustainable Development Department (SD), FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Saikia P, Baruah D M (2017) Impact of entrepreneurship on economic empowerment of women entrepreneurs in Assam, Indian Res. J Extn Educ 17(2):19–23Google Scholar
  16. Tapsell LC, Hemphill I, Cobiac L, Patch CS, Sullivan DR, Fenech M, Roodenrys S, Keogh JB, Clifton PM, Williams PG, Fazio VA, Inge KE (2006) Health benefits of herbs and spices: the past, the present, the future. Med J Aust 185(4 Suppl):S4–24Google Scholar
  17. Van Loon GW, Patil SG, Hugar LB (2005) Agricultural sustainability; strategies for assessment. Sage publication, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  18. Worth S (2002) Sustainable extension not transforming, but renewal. Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of AIAEE, Durban, South AfricaGoogle Scholar
  19. Worth S (2006) Agriflection: a learning model for agricultural extension in South Africa. J Agric Educ Ext 12(3):179–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Yolmo Z (2013) Exploration and implication of Indigenous Technological Knowledge in Hill ecosystem of West Bengal. Unpublished M.Sc(Ag) Thesis. Department of Agricultural Extension, Uttar BangaKrishiViswavidyalaya, West Bengal, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  21. Zhen L, Routray JK (2003) Operational indicators for measuring agricultural sustainability in developing Countries. Environ Manag 32(1):34–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. Pradhan
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural ExtensionUttar Banga Krishi Viswavidyalaya, PundibariCooch BeharIndia

Personalised recommendations