Alterations on Cellular Redox States upon Infection and Implications for Host Cell Homeostasis

  • Inês Mesquita
  • Baptiste Vergnes
  • Ricardo SilvestreEmail author
Part of the Experientia Supplementum book series (EXS, volume 109)


The cofactors nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and its phosphate form, NADP+, are crucial molecules present in all living cells. The delicate balance between the oxidized and reduced forms of these molecules is tightly regulated by intracellular metabolism assuring the maintenance of homeostatic conditions, which are essential for cell survival and proliferation. A recent cluster of data has highlighted the importance of the intracellular NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH ratios during host–pathogen interactions, as fluctuations in the levels of these cofactors and in precursors’ bioavailability may condition host response and, therefore, pathogen persistence or elimination. Furthermore, an increasing interest has been given towards how pathogens are capable of hijacking host cell proteins in their own advantage and, consequently, alter cellular redox states and immune function. Here, we review the basic principles behind biosynthesis and subcellular compartmentalization of NAD+ and NADP+, as well as the importance of these cofactors during infection, with a special emphasis on pathogen-driven modulation of host NAD+/NADP+ levels and contribution to the associated immune response.


Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+Host–pathogen interaction NAD+/NADH ratio NADPH Sirtuins L-Tryptophan 


Funding Statement

This work was supported by the Northern Portugal Regional Operational Programme (NORTE 2020), under the Portugal 2020 Partnership Agreement, through the European Regional Development Fund (FEDER) (NORTE-01-0145-FEDER-000013) and the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) (contracts SFRH/BD/120127/2016 to IM and IF/00021/2014 to RS), and Infect-Era (project INLEISH).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Inês Mesquita
    • 1
    • 2
  • Baptiste Vergnes
    • 3
  • Ricardo Silvestre
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Life and Health Sciences Research Institute (ICVS), School of Health Sciences, University of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.ICVS/3B’s-PT Government Associate LaboratoryBraga/GuimarãesPortugal
  3. 3.MIVEGEC (IRD 224-CNRS 5290-Université Montpellier), Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)MontpellierFrance

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