Sensing and Coupling of Electric Biosignals

  • Eugenijus KaniusasEmail author
Part of the Biological and Medical Physics, Biomedical Engineering book series (BIOMEDICAL)


For diagnostic sensing and therapeutic coupling of electric biosignals they have to cross the electrode/tissue boundary across the skin. Thereby metal ion and redox electrodes as well as polarizable and non-polarizable electrodes are subjected to direct and alternating voltage application. Boundaries become polarized while charge transfer, diffusion, and coupled reactions take place on the electrode surface. The formed electrode impedance contributes to the whole body impedance that determines the effectiveness of diagnosis and therapy using electrodes. Any measurement or application of electric biosignals is subjected to capacitive and inductive coupling of interference signals as well as to common-mode and differential-mode interferences. Potential countermeasures include passive and active shielding, driven-right-leg-circuit, notch filters, and preamplifiers.


  1. M.A. Callejon, D.N. Hernandez, J.R. Tosina, L.M. Roa, Distributed circuit modeling of galvanic and capacitive coupling for intrabody communication. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(11), 3263–3269 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. N. Cho, J. Yoo, S.J. Song, J. Lee, S. Jeon, H.J. Yoo, The human body characteristics as a signal transmission medium for intrabody communication. IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 55(5), 1080–1086 (2007)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. S.F. Cogan, D.J. Garrett, R.A. Green, Electrochemical principles of safe charge injection, in Neurobionics: The Biomedical Engineering of Neural Prostheses, ed. by R.K. Shepherd (Wiley, Hoboken, 2016), pp. 55–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. D. Dobrev, I. Daskalov, Two-electrode biopotential amplifier with current-driven inputs. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 40(1), 122–127 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. H.D. Dörfler, in Interface and Colloid Chemistry (in German: Grenzflächen- und Kolloidchemie) (VCH Publisher, 1994)Google Scholar
  6. S. Gabriel, R.W. Lau, C. Gabriel, Gabriel: the dielectric properties of biological tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to 20 GHz. Phys. Med. Biol. 41(11), 2251–2269 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. S. Grimnes, O.G. Martinsen, Bioimpedance and Bioelectricity Basics (Elsevier Publisher, Amsterdam, 2008)Google Scholar
  8. C.H. Hamann, W. Vielstich, in Electrochemistry (in German: Elektrochemie). Wiley-VCH Publisher (1998)Google Scholar
  9. J.C. Huhta, J.G. Webster, 60-Hz interference in electrocardiography. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 20(2), 91–101 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. E. Kaniusas: Clinical versus portable monitoring: possibilities, pitfalls, and future vision, in Invited Expert Commentary toSleep Apnea Syndrome: Research Trends”, ed. by A.O. Lang (Nova Science Publishers, 2007), pp. 3–5Google Scholar
  11. E. Kaniusas, in Biomedical Signals and Sensors I: Linking Physiological Phenomena and Biosignals (Springer Publisher, 2012)Google Scholar
  12. E. Kaniusas, in Biomedical Signals and Sensors II: Linking Acoustic and Optic Biosignals and Biomedical Sensors (Springer Publisher, 2015)Google Scholar
  13. R.S. Khandpur, in Biomedical Instrumentation: Technology and Applications (McGraw-Hill Publisher, 2005)Google Scholar
  14. N. Leitgeb, in Safety of Electromedical Devices (Springer Publisher, 2010)Google Scholar
  15. D. Miklavcic, N. Pavselj, F.X. Hart, Electric properties of tissues, in Wiley Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering (2006), pp. 1–12Google Scholar
  16. A.C. Patil, N.V. Thakor, Implantable neurotechnologies: a review of micro- and nanoelectrodes for neural recording. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 54(1), 23–44 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. F. Rattay, in Electrical Nerve Stimulation: Theory, Experiments and Applications (Springer Publisher, 1990)Google Scholar
  18. J.P. Reilly, in Applied Bioelectricity: From Electrical Stimulation to Electropathology (Springer Publisher, 1998)Google Scholar
  19. P. Roach, D. Eglin, K. Rohde, C.C. Perry, Modern biomaterials: a review—bulk properties and implications of surface modifications. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 18(7), 1263–1277 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Safety Publication and Preliminary Standard DIN IEC/TS 60479-1 (VDE V 0140-479-1): effects of current on human beings and livestock (2007)Google Scholar
  21. W. Schmickler, Models for the interface between a metal and an electrolyte solution, in Structure of Electrified Interfaces, ed. by J. Lipkowski, P.N. Ross (VCH Publisher, 1993)Google Scholar
  22. H.P. Schwan, Linear and nonlinear electrode polarization and biological materials. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 20(3), 269–288 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. M. Seyedi, B. Kibret, D.T.H. Lai, M. Faulkner, A survey on intrabody communications for body area network applications. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 60(8), 2067–2079 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. E.M. Spinelli, M.A. Mayosky, Two-electrode biopotential measurements: power line interference analysis. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 52(8), 1436–1442 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. F.T. Wagner, Simulation of the electrical double-layer in ultrahigh vacuum, in Structure of Electrified Interfaces, ed. by J. Lipkowski, P.N. Ross (VCH Publisher, 1993)Google Scholar
  26. T. Wartzek, T. Lammersen, B. Eilebrecht, M. Walter, S. Leonhardt, Triboelectricity in capacitive biopotential measurements. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 58(5), 1268–1277 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. A.N. Weissenrieder, in Stimulation Electrodes for Pacemaker Applications: Electrochemistry of Bioelectrodes (VDM Publisher Dr. Müller, 2009)Google Scholar
  28. B.B. Winter, J.G. Webster, Driven-right-leg circuit design. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 30(1), 62–66 (1983)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. M.R. Wright, An introduction to aqueous electrolyte solutions (Wiley, 2007)Google Scholar
  30. R. Xu, W.C. Ng, H. Zhu, H. Shan, J. Yuan, Equation environment coupling and interference on the electric-field intrabody communication channel. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59(7), 2051–2059 (2012)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Y.L. Zheng, X.R. Ding, C.C.Y. Poon, B.P.L. Lo, H. Zhang, X.L. Zhou, G.Z. Yang, N. Zhao, Y.T. Zhang, Unobtrusive sensing and wearable devices for health informatics. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 61(5), 1538–1554 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Head of Research Unit Biomedical Electronics, Head of Research Group Biomedical Sensing, Chairman of Study Commission Biomedical EngineeringVienna University of Technology, Institute of Electrodynamics, Microwave and Circuit EngineeringViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations