Advertisement

Information Communication Technology

Chapter
Part of the Springer Texts in Education book series (SPTE)

Abstract

This chapter consists of the narratives of two principals in Singapore on how they had interpreted and communicated Information and Communication Technology (ICT) policies to their teachers, and how they had helped their teachers to design and introduce ICT activities and programmes in their classrooms. As the process of globalization and technological advancement has brought tremendous changes in Singapore, the Singapore government launched the first ICT Masterplan in 1997 with the aim to equip Singaporean students with the necessary skills and dispositions pertaining to ICT so that they are able to thrive in this ICT rich global economy. In order to strengthen this ICT initiative, the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) was adopted and introduced as a framework to Singapore schools to help educators build the necessary knowledge and skills to facilitate ICT integration in school (Koh et al. 2015). The TPACK contains three basic forms of knowledge, namely the technological knowledge, pedagogical knowledge and content knowledge and in order for TPACK to be successfully operationalized in school, school leaders need to ensure that the vision and philosophy, curriculum, professional learning, infrastructure and resources, communication and partnerships and research and development are provided for in their schools.

References

  1. Boschman, F., McKenney, S., & Voogt, J. (2015). Exploring teachers’ use of TPACK in design talk: The collaborative design of technology-rich early literacy activities. Computers & Education, 82, 250–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Budget 2017: Response by Minister for Communications and Information Dr Yaacob Ibrahim. (2007). Retrieved from: https://www.gov.sg/microsites/budget2017/press-room/news/content/response-by-minister-for-communications-and-information-dr-yaacob-ibrahim.
  3. Bybee, R. W., Taylor, J. A., Gardner, A., Van Scotter, P., Powell, J. C., Westbrook, A., & Landes, B. (2006). The BSCS 5E instructional model: Origins and effectiveness. Retrieved from https://bscs.org/sites/default/files/_media/about/downloads/BSCS_5E_Full_Report.pdf.
  4. Chai, C. S., Koh, J. H. L., & Tsai, C.-C. (2013). A review of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Education Technology and Society, 16(2), 31–51.Google Scholar
  5. Chai, C. S., Koh, E., Lim, C. P., & Tsai, C.-C. (2014). Deepening ICT integration through multilevel design of technological pedagogical content knowledge. Journal of Computers in Education, 1(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chai, C. S., So, H.-J., Tsai, P.-S., Rohman, E., & Aw, I. L. P. (2016). Building epistemic repertoire among primary 3 students for social studies. In C. S. Chai, C. P. Lim, & C. M. Tan (Eds.), Future learning in primary schools: A Singapore perspective (pp. 109–128). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chua, S. K. C. (2006). Singaporean education planning: Moving from the macro to the micro. Current Issues in Language Planning, 7(3), 214–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Clemons, R. S., & McBeth, M. K. (2008). Public policy praxis (2nd ed.). NY: Pearson Longman.Google Scholar
  9. Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st-century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fowler, F. C. (2013). Policy studies for educational leaders (4th ed.). USA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  11. Fullan, M. (1993). Changing forces. Bristol, PA: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  12. Fullan, M. (2001). The new meaning of educational change. NY: Teachers College Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hairon, S., & Dimmock, C. (2012). Singapore schools and professional learning communities: Teacher professional development and school leadership in an Asian hierarchical system. Educational Review, 64(4), 405–424.Google Scholar
  14. Hairon, S., & Goh, J. W. P. (2015). Pursuing the elusive construct of distributed leadership: Is the search over? Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 43(5), 693–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hairon, S., Goh, J. W. P., & Chua, C. S. K. (2015). Teacher leadership enactment in PLC contexts: Towards a better understanding of the phenomenon. School Leadership and Management, 35(2), 163–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Harris, A., & Spillane, J. (2008). Distributed leadership through the looking glass. Management in Education, 22(1), 31–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hung, D., Tan, S. C., & Chen, D.-T. (2003). IT integration and online learning in the Singapore schools. Educational Technology, 43(3), 37–45.Google Scholar
  18. Infocomm Development Authority of Singapore (IDA). (2014). ICT for productivity and growth (IPG) programme. Retrieved October 24, 2014, from http://www.ida.gov.sg/Collaboration-and-Initiatives/Initiatives/Store/ICT-for-Productivity-and-Growth-IPG.
  19. Info-communications Media Development Authority. (2018). Singapore unveils third Masterplan for ICT in Education. Retrieved March 28, 2018, from https://www.imda.gov.sg/infocomm-and-media-news/buzz-central/2008/9/singapore-unveils-third-masterplan-for-ict-in-education.
  20. Klein, G. (2001). The fiction of optimization. In G. Gigerenzer & R. Selton (Eds.), Bounded rationality: The adaptive toolbox. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  21. Koh, J. H. L., & Chai, C. S. (2014). Characterizing TPACK transformations in the design of school-based pedagogical innovation. In C.-C. Liu, et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Computers in Education. Japan: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.Google Scholar
  22. Koh, J. H. L., Chai, S. C., Wong, B., & Hong, H.-Y. (2015). Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) and design thinking: A framework to support ICT lesson design for 21st century learning. The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 24(3), 535–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koh, T. S., & Lee, S. C. (2008). Digital skills and education: Singapore’s ICT master planning for the school sector. IN S. K. Lee, C. B. Goh, B. Fredriksen, & J. P. Tan (Eds.), Toward a better future: Education and training for economic development in Singapore since 1965 (pp. 167–190). Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  24. Lebaron, J., Robinson, J. M., & McDonough, E. (2009, December 8). Research report for Gessometa review of ICT in education phase two. Retrieved on December 8, 2010 from http://www.gesci.org/assets/files/Research/meta-researchphase2.pdf.
  25. Lim, C. P., Chai, C. S., & Churchill, D. (2011). A framework for developing pre-service teachers’ competencies in using technologies to enhance teaching and learning. Education Media International, 48(2), 60–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. (2006). Technological pedagogical content knowledge: A framework for teacher knowledge. Teachers College Record, 108(6), 1017–1054.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. MOE: About us. (2017). Retrieved March 27, 2017, from: https://www.moe.gov.sg/about.
  28. MOE. (2007). MOE selects first five futureschools@Singapore. Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/press/2007/pr20070522.htm.
  29. MOE. (2008). MOE launches third masterplan for ICT in education. Retrieved September 19, 2014, from http://www.moe.gov.sg/media/press/2008/08/moe-launches-third-masterplan.php.
  30. Ng, K. (2014) Singapore education minister shares 4 principles on ICT use in education. Retrieved September 20, 2014, from http://www.futuregov.asia/articles/2014/apr/10/singapore-education-minister-shares-4-principles-i.
  31. Norris, C., Hossain, A., & Soloway, E. (2011). Using smartphones as essential tools for learning. Educational Technology, 18, 18–25.Google Scholar
  32. O’Shea, M. P. (1999). Recognising the challenges of the new millennium: The changing face of art education in Singapore. Paper presented at the Proceedings from the InSea 30th World Congress “Cultures and transitions”, Brisbane Australia.Google Scholar
  33. Sather, S. (2006). Implementing professional learning teams. Principal’s Research Review: Supporting the Principal’s Data-Driven Decisions, 1(5). Retrieved September 30, 2014, from http://www.nassp.org/portals/0/content/54161.pdf.
  34. Scardamalia, M., & Bereiter, C. (2006). Knowledge building: Theory, pedagogy, and technology. In K. Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 97–115). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). USA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.Google Scholar
  36. Schneider, E. J., & Hollenczer, L. L. (2006). The principal’s guide to manage communication. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.Google Scholar
  37. Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growth in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4–14.  https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189x015002004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Spillane, J. P., Diamond, J. B., Burch, P., Hallet, T., Jita, L., & Zoltners, J. (2002). Managing in the middle: School leaders and the enactment of accountability policy. Educational Policy, 16(5), 731–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Tsai, C. C., & Chai, C. S. (2012). The “third”-order barrier for technology-integration instruction: Implications for teacher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28(6), 1057–1060.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Tyack, D., & Tobin, W. (1994). The ‘grammar’ of schooling: Why has it been so hard to change? American Educational Research Journal, 31(3), 453–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Weick, K. (1995). Sensemaking in organizations. Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  43. Windschitl, M. (2002). Framing constructivism in practice as the negotiation of dilemmas: An analysis of the conceptual, pedagogical, cultural, and political challenges facing teachers. Review of Educational Research, 72(2), 131–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wong, L. H., Chen, W., Chai, C. S., Chin, C. K., & Gao, P. (2011). A blended collaborative writing approach for Chinese L2 primary school students. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 27(7), 1208–1226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Yang, C. (2016). Students, as digital natives, are more involved when technology is used in teaching, say educators. The Straits Times. Retrieved March 27, 2018, from http://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/education/more-schools-tap-tech-tools-for-learning.
  46. Yip, J. S. K., Eng, S. P., & Yap, J. Y. C. (1997). 25 years of education reform. In J. Tan, S. Gopinathan, & W. K. Ho (Eds.), Education in Singapore: A book of readings (pp. 4–32). Singapore: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Chinese University of Hong KongHong KongChina

Personalised recommendations