Advertisement

Enforcement of Regional Economic Integration in the Caribbean: Treaty Enforcement by the Caribbean Court of Justice and Regimes for Enhanced Co-Operation

  • David S. Berry
Chapter
Part of the The World of Small States book series (WSS, volume 3)

Abstract

In the Caribbean two sub-regional integration movements, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), are developing and strengthening their regional economic regimes. CARICOM is assisted by the Caribbean Court of Justice (CCJ), a court that serves two distinct roles. Under its appellate jurisdiction the CCJ acts as a final court of appeal; under its original jurisdiction the CCJ acts as an international, treaty-interpreting tribunal. After providing a brief overview of the two Caribbean regional integration movements, the chapter examines the potential of judicial enforcement of treaty rules through the CCJ, particularly in the context of conflicting national legislation. It also scrutinises the practical problems of a closer co-operation regime for CARICOM, in light of recent OECS initiatives, and finishes with concluding observations.

References

  1. ‘Five years later, Caricom pleased with progress of CSME’, Jamaica Observer, 31 Jan 2011. http://www.jamaicaobserver.com/news/Five-years-later,-Caricom-pleased-with-progress-of-CSME. (Last accessed 28 July 2017)
  2. Agreement Establishing the Caribbean Court of Justice (adopted 14 Feb 2001, entered into force 23 Jul 2002) 2255 UNTS 319Google Scholar
  3. American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man (1948), O.A.S. Res. XXX, adopted by the Ninth International Conference of American States, as available at http://www.oas.org/en/iachr/mandate/Basics/declaration.asp. (Last accessed 28 July 2017)
  4. Balassa B (1961) The theory of economic integration. Richard D, IrwinGoogle Scholar
  5. Bennion FAR (2008) Bennion on statutory interpretation: a code, 5th edn. Lexisnexis Reed Elsevier, LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. Berry DS (2014) Caribbean integration law. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cambien N (2012) Union citizenship and immigration: rethinking the classics? Eur J Legal Stud 5:4Google Scholar
  8. CARICOM (2001) Member States and Associate Members. http://caricom.org. (Last accessed 27 July 2017)
  9. Case C-209/13 UK v Council, ECLI:EU:C:2014:283, available through http://eur-lex.europa.eu/collection/eu-law/eu-case-law.html
  10. Caserta S, Madsen MR (2016a) Between community law and common law: the rise of the Caribbean Court of Justice at the intersection of regional integration and post-colonial legacies. Law Contemp Probl 79:89Google Scholar
  11. Caserta S, Madsen MR (2016b) Tomlinson v Belize; Tomlinson v Trinidad and Tobago; International Decisions. Am J Int Law 110:533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cases C-274 and 295/11 Spain and Italy v Council ECLI:EU:C:2013:240, available through http://eur-lex.europa.eu/collection/eu-law/eu-case-law.html
  13. Charter of the Organization of American States (adopted 30 Apr 1948, in force 13 Dec 1951) 119 UNTS 46, OASTS No 1Google Scholar
  14. Consolidated versions of the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, 2016/C 202/1, as available through http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=OJ:C:2016:202:FULL&from=EN. (Last accessed 28 July 2017)
  15. Country Comparisons (2017) CIA World Factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/resources/the-world-factbook. (Last accessed 28 July 2017)
  16. Craig P, Búrca GD (2015) EU law: text, cases, and materials, 6th edn. Oxford University Press, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Directive 2004/38/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council (2004) Official Journal of the European Union 158:77–123Google Scholar
  18. El-Agraa AM (2007) The European Union: economics and policies, 8th edn. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  19. Free Movement and Residence (2017) European Commission. http://ec.europa.eu/justice/citizen/move-live/index_en.htm. (Last accessed 26 July 2017)
  20. Geocurrents Info (2011) Caribbean Community. http://www.geocurrents.info/site-news/geocurrents-new-look. (Last accessed 27 July 2017)
  21. Hendry I, Dickson S (2011) British overseas territories law. Hart, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Holly W, Nekvapil J, Scherm I, Tišerová P (2003) Unequal neighbours: coping with asymmetries. J Ethnic Migr Stud 29:819–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) U.N.G.A. Res. 2200 (XXI), G.A.O.R., 21st Sess., Supp. 16, p. 49, 6 I.L.M. 368; treaty status as available at http://tbinternet.ohchr.org/_layouts/TreatyBodyExternal/Treaty.aspx?CountryID=18&Lang=EN. (Last accessed 28 July 2017)
  24. Maurice Tomlinson v The State of Trinidad and Tobago (2016) CCJ 1(OJ)Google Scholar
  25. Montserrat Government UK Office (2017) http://montserrat-gov.org/index.php/about-us. (Last accessed 26 July 2017)
  26. On the Map (2017) Government of the British Virgin Islands London Office, http://bvi.org.uk/islands/onthemap. (Last accessed 10 August 2017)
  27. Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. About the OECS. http://www.oecs.org. (Last accessed 28 July 2017)
  28. Shanique Myrie v Barbados (2013) CCJ 3 (OJ), (2013) 83 WIR 104Google Scholar
  29. Shaw J (2012) EU citizenship and the edges of Europe. In: The Europeanisation of Citizenship in the Successor States of the Former Yugoslavia (CITSEE), CITSEE Working Paper Series 2012/19. http://www.citsee.ed.ac.uk/working_papers. (Last accessed 27 July 2017)
  30. Treaty Establishing the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (adopted 18 June 1981, in force 2 Jul 1981) 1338 UNTS 97. Amended by the Revised Treaty of Basseterre Establishing the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States Economic Union (adopted 18 Jun 2010, in force 21 Jan 2011)Google Scholar
  31. Trinidad Cement Ltd and TCL Guyana Inc v Guyana (2009) CCJ 1 (OJ), (2009) 74 WIR 302Google Scholar
  32. White RC (2005) Free movement, equal treatment, and citizenship of the Union. Int Comp Law Q 54:885CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. World Bank (2017) World Development Indicators database. http://databank.worldbank.org. Last accessed 28 July 2017

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the West Indies, Cave Hill CampusBridgetownBarbados

Personalised recommendations