Maintaining Excellence and Expertise Within Medical Imaging: A Sustainable Practice?

Chapter

Abstract

Exploring the sustainability of contemporary healthcare remains paramount. Medical imaging is a central part of the hospital environment, whereby various imaging examinations are undertaken for patients with suspected health diseases and conditions. This chapter examines three areas that not only currently underpin the medical imaging profession but also challenge its application clinically and how it may or may not be sustainable for future generations. The author discusses technological advances, patient care, use of ionising radiation and education/role development of diagnostic radiographers within the general radiography. General radiography constitutes approximately 90% of all medical imaging examinations undertaken in the United Kingdom, thus important to focus upon when discussing ‘sustainable futures’ of the medical imaging profession. Further, these discussions may help predict trends in other modalities within the profession. By identifying areas for improvement and/or challenging current norms pertinent to sustainable futures, it can help achieve optimum healthcare delivery within the National Health Service and other organisations nationally and internationally. The discussions within this chapter are likely to resonate with peers globally and thus may help instigate discussions relevant to their clinical environment(s).

Keywords

Ionising radiation Medical imaging Sustainable healthcare Patient care Anthropocentrism 

References

  1. Allison, W. (2009). Radiation and reason – The impact on a culture of fear. York: Wade Allison Publishing.Google Scholar
  2. Atkinson, P., & Hammersley, M. (2007). Ethnography – Principles in practice (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Bacher, K., Smeets, P., Bonnarens, K., De Hauwere, A., Verstraete, K., & Thierens, H. (2003). Dose reduction in patients undergoing chest imaging: Digital amorphous silicon flat-panel detector radiography versus conventional film-screen radiography and phosphor-based computed radiography. American Journal of Roentgenology, 181(4), 923–929.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barley, S. R. (1986). Technology as an occasion for structuring: Evidence from observations of CT scanners and the social order of radiology departments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31(1), 78–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Becker, H. S., Geer, B., Hughes, E. C., & Strauss, A. L. (1961). Boys in white – Student culture in medical school. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. Blau, P. M., Falbe, C. M., McKinley, W., & Tracy, P. K. (1976). Technology and organization in manufacturing. Administrative Science Quarterly, 21(1), 20–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Buchanan, D. A., Fitzgerald, L., & Ketley, D. (2007). The sustainability and spread of organizational change. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Comm, C. L., & Mathaisel, D. (2008). Sustaining higher education using Wal-Mart’s best supply chain management practices. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 9(2), 183–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Consumer Rights Act. (2015). Consumer Rights Act 2015. [Online] Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/15/pdfs/ukpga_20150015_en.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2016.
  10. Dalrymple-Hay, M. J., Rome, P. D., Kennedy, C., & McCaughan, B. C. (2002). Pulmonary metastatic melanoma – The survival benefit associated with positron emission tomography scanning. European Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, 21(4), 611–614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Department of Health. (2013). Report of the Mid Staffordshire NHS Foundation Trust public inquiry. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/report-of-the-mid-staffordshire-nhs-foundation-trust-public-inquiry. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  12. Department of Health. (2015). The NHS Constitution for England. [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-nhs-constitution-for-england. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  13. Department of Health. (2017). Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 (IRMER). [Online] Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-ionising-radiation-medical-exposure-regulations-2000. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  14. Drennan, D. (1992). Transforming company culture. London: Mcgraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  15. Fett, M. (2000). Technology, health and health care. Canberra: Commonwealth Department of Health and Aged Care.Google Scholar
  16. Galpin, T., Whitttington, J. L., & Bell, G. (2015). Is your sustainability strategy sustainable? Creating a culture of sustainability. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society, 15(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Garetti, M., & Taisch, M. (2012). Sustainability manufacturing: Trends and research challenges. Production Planning & Control, 23(2–3), 83–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Geijer, H., Beckman, K. W., Andersson, T., & Persliden, J. (2001). Image quality vs. radiation dose for a flat panel amorphous silicon detector: A phantom study. European Journal of Radiology, 11(9), 1704–1709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Godwin, T. (2010). Corporate social responsibility strategy 2010–2013. [Online] Available at: http://www.met.police.uk/about/documents/csr_strategy.pdf. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
  20. Hammersley, M. (1992). What’s wrong with ethnography. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Hayre, C. M. (2016a). Radiography observed: An ethnographic study exploring contemporary radiographic practice. Ph.D. thesis, Canterbury Christ Church University.Google Scholar
  22. Hayre, C. M. (2016b). ‘Cranking up’, ‘whacking up’ and ‘bumping up’: X-ray exposures in contemporary radiographic practice. Radiography, 22(2), 194–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hayre, C. M., Eyden, A., Blackman, S., & Carlton, K. (2017). Image acquisition in general radiography: The utilisation of DDR. Radiography, 23(2), 147–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Health Protection Agency. (2011). Scale of UK exposure to X-rays revealed. [Online] Available at: http://www.hpa.org.uk. Accessed 06 May 2011.
  25. Holliday, A. (2016). Doing and writing qualitative research (3rd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  26. Hopper, J. R., & McCarl-Nielsen, J. (1991). Recycling as altruistic behaviour. Normative and behavioural strategies to expand participation in a community recycling program. Environment & Behaviour, 23, 195–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. International Commission on Radiological Protection. (2007). Annuals of the ICRP. Exeter: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  28. Jacques, P. (2015). Sustainability: The basics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Malinowski, B. (1923). The problem of meaning in primitive languages. In C. K. Ogden & I. A. Richards (Eds.), The meaning of meaning (pp. 146–152). London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  30. McConnell, J. (2011). Index of medical imaging. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murphy, F. J. (2006). The paradox of imaging technology: A review of the literature. Radiography, 12(2), 169–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. National Health Service. (2017). Studying nursing. [Online]. Available at: https://www.healthcareers.nhs.uk/I-am/considering-or-university/studying-nursing. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
  33. Nemet, G. F. (2009). Demand-pull, technology-push, and government-led incentives for non-incremental technical change. Research Policy, 38(5), 700–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Nordlund, A. M., & Garvill, J. (2002). Value structures behind roenvironmental behaviour. Environment and Behaviour, 34(6), 740–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Philips B. (2011). Create a premium DR room like no other. [Online] Available at: http://www.healthcare.philips.com/us_en/products/xray/products/radiography/digital/digitaldiagnost/. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  36. Picano, E. (2004). Sustainability in medical imaging. British Medical Journal, 328(7439), 578–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Piper, K., Buscall, K., & Thomas, N. (2010). MRI reporting by radiographers: Findings of an accredited postgraduate programme. Radiography, 16, 136–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Piper, K., Cox, S., Paterson, A., et al. (2014). Chest reporting by radiographers: Findings of an accredited postgraduate programme. Radiography, 20, 94–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Porter, M. E., & Kramer, M. R. (2011). The big idea: Creating shared value. Harvard Business Review. January–February.Google Scholar
  40. Price, R. C. (2001). Radiographer reporting: Origins, demise and revival of plain film reporting. Radiography, 7(1), 105–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Royal College of Radiologists. (2015a). Sustainable future for diagnostic radiology: Working for alternative and/or multiple providers. [Online] Available at: https://www.rcr.ac.uk/publication/sustainable-future-diagnostic-radiology-working-alternative-andor-multiple-providers. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  42. Royal College of Radiologists. (2015b). Sustainable future for diagnostic radiology: Flexible home working. [Online] Available at: https://www.rcr.ac.uk/publication/sustainable-future-diagnostic-radiology-flexible-home-working. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  43. Royal College of Radiologists. (2016). Sustainable future for diagnostic radiology: Lifelong learning: Delivering education and training for a sustainable workforce. [Online] Available at: https://www.rcr.ac.uk/system/files/publication/field_publication_files/bfcr161_sustainable_learning.pdf. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  44. Royal College of Radiologists. (2017). The radiology crisis in Scotland: Sustainable solutions are needed now. [Online]. Available at: https://www.rcr.ac.uk/posts/radiology-crisis-scotland-sustainable-solutions-are-needed-now. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  45. Schaefer-Prokop, C., Neitzel, U., Venema, H. W., Uffmann, M., & Prokop, M. (2008). Digital chest radiography: An update on modern technology, dose containment and control of image quality. European Radiology, 18(9), 1818–1830.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Scott, J. (2010) Royal United Hospital Bath NHS Trust. [Online] Available at: http://www.ruh.nhs.uk/about/annual_report/documents/social_responsibility_report_2009-10.pdf. Accessed 31 Jan 2018.
  47. Scotch, N. A. (1963). Medical anthropology. Biennial Review of Anthropology, 3, 30–68.Google Scholar
  48. Seeram, E. (2011). Digital radiography: An introduction for technologists. Burnaby, BC: British Columbia Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  49. Seeram, E. (2013). Radiation dose optimization research: Exposure technique approaches in CR imaging – A literature review. Radiography, 19(4), 331–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Seibert, J. A., & Morin, R. L. (2011). The standardized exposure index for digital radiography: An opportunity for radiation dose to the pediatric population. Pediatric Radiology, 41(5), 573–581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Smircich, L. (1983). Concepts of culture and organisational analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28(3), 339–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Society of Radiographers. (2016). Reforming healthcare education funding: Creating a sustainable future workforce. Available at: https://www.sor.org/sites/default/files/scor_response_to_reforming_healthcare_education_funding_consultation_1.pdf. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  53. Society of Radiographers. (2017a). Advanced practitioner. [Online] Available at: https://www.sor.org/learning/document-library/education-and-professional-development-strategy-new-directions/advanced-practitioner. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  54. Society of Radiographers. (2017b). Radiographers need to be further educated enhance roles. [Online] Available at: https://www.sor.org/news/radiographers-need-be-further-educated-enhance-roles. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  55. Strotzer, M., Gmeinwieser, J. K., Volk, M., Frund, R., Seitz, J., & Feuerbach, S. (1998). Detection of simulated chest lesions with reduced radiation dose: Comparison of conventional screen-film radiography and a flat-panel X-ray detector based on amorphous silicon (a-Si). Investigative Radiology, 33(2), 98–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Teeside University. (2017). PgDip/MSc diagnostic radiography (pre-registration). [Online] Available at: http://www.tees.ac.uk/Postgraduate_courses/Health_&_Social_Care/PgDip_MSc_Diagnostic_Radiography_(pre-registration).cfm.
  57. Trompenaars, F., & Hampden-Turner, C. (2011). Riding the waves of culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business (2nd ed.). London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.Google Scholar
  58. Turner, C. (2017/February). Students turn back on nursing degrees in wake of Government decision to axe NHS bursaries, official figures suggest. The telegraph. [Online] Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/2017/02/02/students-turn-backs-nursing-degrees-wake-government-decision/. Accessed 30 Aug 2017.
  59. Tylor, E. B. (1884). American aspects of anthropology. Popular Science Monthly, 26, 152.168.Google Scholar
  60. Uffmann, M., Schaefer-Prokop, C., & Neitzel, U. (2008). Balance of required dose and image quality in digital radiography. Der Radiologe, 48(3), 249–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. University of Derby. (2017). MSc diagnostic radiography (pre-registration). [Online] Available at: http://www.derby.ac.uk/courses/postgraduate/diagnostic-radiography-msc/. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
  62. University of London. (2014). Corporate social responsibility. [Online] Available at: http://www.london.ac.uk/5634.html. Accessed 01 Jan 2017.
  63. University of Manchester. (2016). Social responsibility. [Online] Available at: http://www.manchester.ac.uk/discover/social-responsibility/. Accessed 18 Jan 2017.
  64. Universities UK (2015). Patterns and trends in UK higher education. [Online] Available at: http://www.universitiesuk.ac.uk/policy-and-analysis/reports/Documents/2015/patterns-and-trends-2015.pdf. Accessed: 01 Dec 2016.
  65. Vaño, E. (2005). ICRP recommendations on managing patient dose in digital radiology. Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 114(1–3), 126–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Volk, M., Strotzer, M., Holzknecht, N., Manke, C., Lenhart, M., Gmeinwieser, J., Link, J., Reiser, M., & Feuerback, S. (2000). Digital radiography of the skeleton using a large-area detector based on amorphous silicon technology: Image quality and potential for dose reduction in comparison with screen-film radiography. Clinical Radiology, 55(8), 615–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. von Liel, B. (2016). Creating shared value as future factor of competition. Springer: Germany.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of SuffolkIpswichUnited Kingdom

Personalised recommendations