Diagnostic Imaging of Temporal Bone Cancer

Chapter

Abstract

This chapter describes the imaging techniques used to evaluate tumors affecting the temporal bone, the imaging features of these tumors, and the appearance of the treatment site. First, a basic description of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and ultrasonography for the evaluation of lesions involving the temporal bone is provided. Second, the imaging features of tumors involving the ear, preauricular region, and external auditory canal—namely, basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas—are discussed. The imaging features of the more common tumors arising directly from the temporal bone—including osteosarcoma, chondrosarcoma, and giant cell tumor as well as those more common in children—are also discussed. Also described is perineural tumor spread to the fifth and seventh cranial nerves from diseases arising from, invading, or metastasizing to the parotid. Finally, the radiographic characteristics of reconstructive flaps and treatment effects are provided.

Keywords

Temporal bone Parotid gland Sarcoma Perineural spread Flap reconstruction Treatment effects 

Notes

Acknowledgment

We thank Bryan Tutt for editorial assistance with the chapter.

References

  1. 1.
    Lanka B, Turner M, Orton C, Carrington BM. Cross-sectional imaging in non-melanoma skin cancer of the head and neck. Clin Radiol. 2005;60:869–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Acartürk TO, Edington H. Nonmelanoma skin cancer. Clin Plast Surg. 2005;32:237–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Netscher DT, Leong M, Orengo I, Yang D, Berg C, Krishnan B. Cutaneous malignancies: melanoma and nonmelanoma types. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;127:37–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brantsch KD, Meisner C, Schönfisch B, Trilling B, Wehner-Caroli J, Röcken M, et al. Analysis of risk factors determining prognosis of cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma: a prospective study. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9:713–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lee D, Nash M, Har-El G. Regional spread of auricular and periauricular cutaneous malignancies. Laryngoscope. 1996;106:998–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Tavin E, Persky M. Metastatic cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. Laryngoscope. 1996;106:156–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Yoon M, Chougule P, Dufresne R, Wanebo HJ. Localized carcinoma of the external ear is an unrecognized aggressive disease with a high propensity for local regional recurrence. Am J Surg. 1992;164:574–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Thacker CA, Weiss GJ, Tibes R, Blaydorn L, Downhour M, White E. 18-FDG PET/CT assessment of basal cell carcinoma with vismodegib. Cancer Med. 2012;1:230–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Levell NJ, Igali L, Wright KA, Greenberg DC. Basal cell carcinoma epidemiology in the UK: the elephant in the room. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2013;38:367–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams LS, Mancuso AA, Mendenhall WM. Perineural spread of cutaneous squamous and basal cell carcinoma: CT and MR detection and its impact on patient management and prognosis. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2001;49:1061–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Breuninger H, Black B, Rassner G. Microstaging of squamous cell carcinomas. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;94:624–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Arena S, Keen M. Carcinoma of the middle ear and temporal bone. Am J Otol. 1988;9:351–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pensak ML, Gleich LL, Gluckman JK, Shumrick KA. Temporal bone carcinoma: contemporary perspectives in the skull base surgical era. Laryngoscope. 1996;106:1234–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grandis JR, Hirsch B, Yu VL. Simultaneous presentation of malignant external otitis and temporal bone cancer. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1993;119:687–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Al-Shihabi A. Carcinoma of temporal bone presenting as malignant otitis externa. J Laryngol Otol. 1992;106(10):908–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Moffat DA, Wagstaff SA, Hardy DG. The outcome of radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the temporal bone. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:341–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wilson JS, Blake GB, Richardson AE, Westbury G. Malignant tumours of the ear and their treatment. II. Tumours of the external auditory meatus, middle ear cleft and temporal bone. Br J Plast Surg. 1974;27:77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bird CR, Hasso AN, Stewart CE, Hinshaw DB Jr, Thompson JR. Malignant primary neoplasms of the ear and temporal bone studied by high-resolution computed tomography. Radiology. 1983;149:171–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Leonetti JP, Smith PG, Kletzker GR, Izquierdo R. Invasion patterns of advanced temporal bone malignancies. Am J Otol. 1996;17:438–42.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Michaels L, Wells M. Squamous cell carcinoma of the middle ear. Clin Otolaryngol Allied Sci. 1980;5:235–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Conley J. Cancer of the middle ear. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1965;74:555–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Goodwin WJ, Jesse RH. Malignant neoplasms of the external auditory canal and temporal bone. Arch Otolaryngol. 1980;106:675–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Malawer MM, Link MP, Donaldson SS. Sarcomas of bone. In: DeVita Jr VT, Hellman S, Rosenberg SA, editors. Cancer. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lipincott-Raven; 1997. p. 1789–852.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Nora FE, Unni KK, Pritchard DJ, Dahlin DC. Osteosarcoma of extragnathic craniofacial bones. Mayo Clin Proc. 1983;58:268–72.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ogunlewe MO, Ajayi OF, Adeyemo WL, Ladeinde AL, James O. Osteogenic sarcoma of the jaw bones: a single institution experience over a 21-year period. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2006;101:76–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Littrell LA, Wenger DE, Wold LE, Bertoni F, Unni KK, White LM, et al. Radiographic, CT, and MR imaging features of dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas: a retrospective review of 174 de novo cases. Radiographics. 2004;24:1397–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Murphey MD, Nomikos GC, Flemming DJ, Gannon FH, Temple HT, Kransdorf MJ. From the archives of AFIP. Imaging of giant cell tumor and giant cell reparative granuloma of bone: radiologic-pathologic correlation. Radiographics. 2001;21:1283–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rock JP, Mahmood A, Cramer HB. Giant cell tumor of the skull base. Am J Otol. 1994;15:268–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rhea JT, Weber AL. Giant-cell granuloma of the sinuses. Radiology. 1983;147:135–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Som PM, Lawson W, Cohen BA. Giant-cell lesions of the facial bones. Radiology. 1983;147:129–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Aralasmak A, Aygun N, Westra WH, Yousem DM. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the sphenoid bone. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1675–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kashiwagi N, Dote K, Kawano K, Tomita Y, Murakami T, Nakanishi K, et al. MRI findings of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland: correlation with pathological features. Br J Radiol. 2012;85:709–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Christe A, Waldherr C, Hallett R, Zbaeren P, Thoeny H. MR imaging of parotid tumors: typical lesion characteristics in MR imaging improve discrimination between benign and malignant disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011;32:1202–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Curtin HD. CT of acoustic neuroma and other tumors of the ear. Radiol Clin N Am. 1984;22:77–105.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Schwartz RH, Movassaghi N, Marion ED. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the middle ear: a wolf in sheep’s clothing. Pediatrics. 1980;65:1131–3.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Goepfert H, Cangir A, Lindberg R, Ayala A. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the temporal bone. Is surgical resection necessary? Arch Otolaryngol. 1979;105:310–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sbeity S, Abella A, Arcand P, Quintal MC, Saliba I. Temporal bone rhabdomyosarcoma in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;71:807–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Chevallier KM, Wiggins RH, Quinn NA, Gurgel RK. Differentiating pediatric rhabdomyosarcoma and langerhans cell histiocytosis of the temporal bone by imaging appearance. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016;37:1185–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Clayman GL, Lee JJ, Holsinger FC, Zhou X, Duvic M, El-Naggar AK, et al. Mortality risk from squamous cell skin cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23:759–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nijsten TE, Stern RS. Oral retinoid use reduces cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma risk in patients with psoriasis treated with psoralen-UVA: a nested cohort study. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;49:644–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Frierson HF Jr, Cooper PH. Prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip. Hum Pathol. 1986;17:346–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Garcia-Serra A, Hinerman RW, Mendenhall WM, Amdur RJ, Morris CG, Williams LS, et al. Carcinoma of the skin with perineural invasion. Head Neck. 2003;25:1027–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McCord MW, Mendenhall WM, Parsons JT, Flowers FP. Skin cancer of the head and neck with incidental microscopic perineural invasion. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999;43:591–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ginsberg LE. Imaging of perineural tumor spread in head and neck cancer. Semin Ultrasound CT MR. 1999;20:175–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Matzko J, Becker DG, Phillips CD. Obliteration of fat planes by perineural spread of squamous cell carcinoma along the inferior alveolar nerve. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994;15:1843–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Curtin HD. Detection of perineural spread: fat is a friend. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998;19:1385–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Essig GF, Kitipornchai L, Adams F, Zarate D, Gandhi M, Porceddu S, et al. Lateral temporal bone resection in advanced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma: report of 35 patients. J Neurol Surg B Skull Base. 2013;74:54–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Medina JE, Park AO, Neely JG, Britton BH. Lateral temporal bone resections. Am J Surg. 1990;160:427–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Graham MD, Sataloff RT, Kemink JL, Wolf GT, McGillicuddy JE. Total en bloc resection of the temporal bone and carotid artery for malignant tumors of the ear and temporal bone. Laryngoscope. 1984;94:528–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hanasono MM, Silva A, Skoracki RJ, Gidley PW, DeMonte F, Hanna EY, et al. Skull base reconstruction: an updated approach. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2011;128:675–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chong J, Chan LL, Langstein HN, Ginsberg LE. MR imaging of the muscular component of myocutaneous flaps in the head and neck. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2001;22:170–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sedrak P, Lee PS, Guha-Thakurta N, Chang EI, Ginsberg LE, Esmaeli B, et al. MRI findings of myocutaneous and fasciocutaneous flaps used for reconstruction of orbital exenteration defects. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014;30:328–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fox MG, Bancroft LW, Peterson JJ, Kransdorf MJ, Terkonda SP, O'Connor MI. MRI appearance of myocutaneous flaps commonly use in orthopedic reconstructive surgery. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:800–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Naidich MJ, Weissman JL. Reconstructive myofascial skull-base flaps: normal appearance on CT and MR imaging studies. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1996;167:611–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Morris LG, Mehra S, Shah JP, Bilsky MH, Selesnick SH, Kraus DH. Predictors of survival and recurrence after temporal bone resection for cancer. Head Neck. 2012;34(9):1231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dean NR, White HN, Carter DS, Desmond RA, Carroll WR, McGrew BM, et al. Outcomes following temporal bone resection. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1516–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Mazonni A, Danesi G, Zanoletti E. Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the external auditory canal: surgical treatment and long-term outcomes. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2014;34:129–37.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Huang XM, Zheng YQ, Zhang XM, Mai HQ, Zeng L, Liu X, et al. Diagnosis and management of skull base osteoradionecrosis after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1626–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ahmed S, Gupta N, Hamilton JD, Garden AS, Gidley PW, Ginsberg LE. CT findings in temporal bone osteoradionecrosis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2014;38:662–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chong VE, Fan YF. Radiation-induced temporal lobe necrosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997;18:784–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Glass JP, Hwang TL, Leavens ME, Libshitz HI. Cerebral radiation necrosis following treatment of extracranial malignancies. Cancer. 1984;54:1966–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Section of NeuroradiologyThe University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations