Cosmetic Uses of Botulinum Toxin
Botulinum toxin (BoTX) has many applications as a tool in minimally invasive facial aesthetic treatments. These include diminishing kinetic facial wrinkle lines, softening prominent orbicularis ridges in the lower eyelids, elevating and contouring the eyebrow, relaxing the ridges of the contracted platysma, and bringing up the lateral corner of the mouth. Each of these is accomplished by using BoTX to relax specific combinations of facial musculature. Botulinum toxin is an effective treatment for glabellar frown lines, crow’s feet, vertical lip lines, and forehead lines by blocking innervation to the muscles contracting perpendicularly to the axis of the wrinkles. It is also possible to modify facial appearance by selectively weakening certain aspects of agonist and antagonist muscle groups. The treatment techniques discussed in this chapter are starting points and should be modified by the injecting surgeon based on experience and patient response.
KeywordsBotulinum toxin (BoTX) Clostridium botulinum Pharmacology BoTX-A BoTX-B Glabellar folds Horizontal forehead wrinkles Lateral periocular rhytides Brow repositioning Hypertrophic orbicularis Perioral wrinkles Melolabial folds Lateral oral commissures Platysmal bands
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