Towards Smart Urban Freight Distribution Using Fleets of Modular Electric Vehicles

  • Dhekra Rezgui
  • Jouhaina Chaouachi Siala
  • Wassila Aggoune-Mtalaa
  • Hend Bouziri
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 37)


This work deals with the electric Modular Fleet Size and Mix Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows, which is an extension of the well-known Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW), where the fleet consists of electric modular vehicles (EMVs). An interesting feature of this work is that despite the fact that the vehicles have a limited range, they are allowed sometimes to recharge at certain customer locations in order to continue a tour. To tackle this problem, a comprehensive mathematical formulation is given in order to model the problem and the multiple constraints appeared due to the modularity, electric charging, time windows and capacity issues. Due to the NP-hardness of the problem, a memetic algorithm is designed for determining good quality solutions in reasonable computational times. Extensive computational experiments carried out on some benchmark instances show the effectiveness of both the problem formulation and the memetic algorithm.


Urban logistic Vehicle Routing Problem Metaheuristics Electric modular vehicles 


  1. 1.
    Aggoune-Mtalaa, W., Habbas, Z., Ait Ouahmed, A., Khadraoui, D.: Solving new urban freight distribution problems involving modular electric vehicles. IET ITS 9(6), 654–661 (2015)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Braysy, O., Dullaert, W., Hasle, G., Mester, D., Gendreau, M.: An effective multi-restart deterministic annealing metaheuristic for the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows. Transp. Sci. 42(3), 371–386 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bruglieri, M., Pezzella, F., Pisacane, O., Suraci, S.: A variable neighborhood search branching for the electric vehicle routing problem with time windows. Elec. Notes Disc. Math. 47, 221–228 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Conrad, R.G., Figliozzi, M.A.: The recharging vehicle routing problem. In: Proceedings Industrial Engineering Research Conference, Reno, CA (2011)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Electrification Coalition. State of the plug-in electric vehicle marke (2013).
  6. 6.
    Erdogan, S., Miller-Hooks, E.: A green vehicle routing problem. Transp. Res. Part E Logist. Transp. Rev. 48(1), 100–114 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goncalves, F., Cardoso, S.R., Relvas, S., Barbosa-Povoa, A.P.F.D.: Optimization of a distribution network using electric vehicles: a VRP problem. Technical report, CEG-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Portugal (2011)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hiermann, G., Puchinger, J., Hartl, R.F.: The electric fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with time windows and recharging stations. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 252(3), 995–1018 (2016)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Koc, C., Bektas, T., Jabali, O., Laporte, G.: The fleet size and mix pollution routing problem. CIRRELT-26 (2014)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin, J., Zhou, W., Wolfson, O.: Electric vehicle routing problem. In: International Conference on City Logistics, vol. 12, pp. 508–521 (2016)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Liu, F.H., Shen, S.Y.: A route-neighborhood-based metaheuristic for vehicle routing problem with time windows. Eur. J. Oper. Res. 118, 485–504 (1999)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pelletier, S., Jabali, O., Laporte, G.: Goods distribution with electric vehicles: review and research perspectives. CIRRELT-44 (2014)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rezgui, D., Aggoune-Mtalaa, W., Bouziri, H.: Towards the electrification of urban freight delivery using modular vehicles. In: 10th IEEE SOLI Conference, vol. 6, pp. 154–159 (2015)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Rezgui, D., Aggoune-Mtalaa, W., Bouziri, H.: Improving the freight distribution in cities using electric modular vehicles. In: Most Innovative Research Award of the third International Conference on Green Supply Chain, London, United Kingdom (2016)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Rezgui, D., Chaouachi-Siala, J., Aggoune-Mtalaa, W., Bouziri, H.: Application of a memetic algorithm to the fleet size and mix vehicle routing problem with electric modular vehicles. In: GECCO 2017 Proceedings of the Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference, vol. 2, pp. 301–302 (2017)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Solomon, M.M.: Algorithms for the vehicle routing and scheduling problems with time window constraints. Oper. Res. 35, 254–265 (1987)MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    U.S. Department of Energy. Plug-in electric vehicle handbook for fleet managers. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dhekra Rezgui
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jouhaina Chaouachi Siala
    • 2
  • Wassila Aggoune-Mtalaa
    • 3
  • Hend Bouziri
    • 4
  1. 1.Institut Supérieur de Gestion de TunisUniversity of TunisLe BardoTunisia
  2. 2.IHECCarthage University-2016CarthageTunisia
  3. 3.Luxembourg Institute of Science and TechnologyEsch/Alzette G.DLuxembourg
  4. 4.ESSECT, LARODEC LaboratoryUniversity of TunisTunisTunisia

Personalised recommendations