Elimination of Chromium(VI) from Waste Water Using Various Biosorbents

Part of the Water Science and Technology Library book series (WSTL, volume 84)


In recent years, pollution of water due to the presence of heavy metal ions is a serious socio-environmental problem caused by the discharge of industrial effluents. Their toxicity, non-biodegradable nature and accumulation in food chains are a matter of concern and thus their removal deserves urgent attention for a cleaner biosphere. Chromium, a major heavy metal pollutant, in its hexavalent form is highly toxic and persistent. Conventional methods like precipitation, evaporation, ion-exchange, electrodialysis and membrane processes incur high costs, need high energy, require chemical reagents and are often inadequate for large-scale industrial applications. Biosorption represents a biotechnological innovation and an economical strategy for elimination of chromium from industrial discharge. The objective of this review study is to contribute in the search for promising cost-effective adsorbents and their utilization possibilities, from various materials of agricultural and biological origin such as sugarcane bagasse, sawdust, rice hull, etc., for the elimination of chromium from polluted water. Removal of chromium(VI) from wastewaters by algal, fungal and bacterial biomass is also discussed.


Biosorbents Heavy metal Hexavalent Biomass 


  1. Ajmal M, Khan Rao RA, Siddiqui BA (1996) Studies on removal and recovery of Cr(VI) from electroplating wastes. Water Res 30(6):1478–1482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bishnoi NR, Bajaj M, Sharma N, Gupta A (2004) Adsorption of Cr(VI) on activated rice husk carbon and activated alumina. Biores Technol 91(3):305–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Campos J, Martinez-Pacheco M, Cervantes C (1995) Hexavalent-chromium reduction by a chromate-resistant Bacillus sp. strain. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 68(3):203–208Google Scholar
  4. Chand SH, Agarwal VK, Kumar P (1994) Removal of hexavalent chromium from wastewater by adsorption. Indian J Environ Health 36(3):151–158Google Scholar
  5. Davis TA, Volesky B, Mucci A (2003) A review of the biochemistry of heavy metal biosorption by brown algae. Water Res 37(18):4311–4330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Deng L, Zhang Y, Qin J, Wang X, Zhu X (2009) Biosorption of Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions by nonliving green algae Cladophora albida. Miner Eng 22(4):372–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gupta V, Shrivastava A, Jain N (2001) Biosorption of chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions by green algae Spirogyra species. Water Res 35(17):4079–4085CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta VK, Ali I (2004) Removal of lead and chromium from wastewater using bagasse fly ash—a sugar industry waste. J Colloid Interface Sci 271(2):321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Helmer LG, Bartley EE (1971) Progress in the utilization of urea as a protein replacer for ruminants. A Review1. J Dairy Sci 54(1):25–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ilhan S, Nourbakhsh MN, Kiliçarslan S, Ozdag H (2004) Removal of chromium, lead and copper ions from industrial waste waters by Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Turk Electron J Biotechnol 2:50–57Google Scholar
  11. Issac R, Prabha L (2011) Equilibrium and Kinetic studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) by non-living mycelial suspensions of Aspergillus niger. Int J Pharma Biosci 2(3):1–7Google Scholar
  12. Khan NA, Ali SI, Ayub S (2001) Effect of pH on the removal of Chromium (Cr)(VI) by Sugar Cane Bagasse. Sci Technol 6:13–19Google Scholar
  13. LLovera S, Bonet R, Simon-Pujol MD, Congregado F (1993) Effect of culture medium ions on chromate reduction by resting cells of Agrobacterium radiobacter. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 39(3):424–426Google Scholar
  14. Mohan D, Singh KP (2002) Single- and multi-component adsorption of cadmium and zinc using activated carbon derived from bagasse—an agricultural waste. Water Res 36(9):2304–2318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Nouri J, Mahvi A, Babaei A, Jahed G, Ahmadpour E (2006) Investigation of heavy metals in groundwater. Pak J Biol Sci 9(3):377–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oliveira EA, Montanher SF, Andrade AD, Nóbrega JA, Rollemberg MC (2005) Equilibrium studies for the sorption of chromium and nickel from aqueous solutions using raw rice bran. Process Biochem 40(11):3485–3490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Panjai Saueprasearsit JW (2010) Biosorption of chromium(VI) using rice husk ash and modified rice husk ash. Environ Res J 4(3):244–250Google Scholar
  18. Pattanapipitpaisal P, Brown NL, Macaskie LE (2001) Chromate reduction by Microbacterium liquefaciens immobilised in polyvinyl alcohol. Biotech Lett 23(1):61–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pena-Castro JM, Martinez-Jeronimo F, Esparza-Garcia F, Canizares-Villanueva RO (2004) Heavy metals removal by the microalga Scenedesmus incrassatulus in continuous cultures. Bioresour Technol 94(2):219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Selvi K, Pattabhi S, Kadirvelu K (2001) Removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution by adsorption onto activated carbon. Biores Technol 80(1):87–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sen M, Dastidar MG (2010) Chromium removal using various biosorbents. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 7(3):189Google Scholar
  22. Sen M, Dastidar MG (2011) Biosorption of Cr(VI) by resting cells of Fusarium solani. Iran J Environ Health Sci Eng 8(2):153Google Scholar
  23. Subramaniam P, Khan N (1970) The effects of various parameters on Cr(VI) adsorption by raw rice husk. Malays J Sci 25(1)Google Scholar
  24. Sun G, Shi W (1998) Sunflower stalks as adsorbents for the removal of metal ions from wastewater. Ind Eng Chem Res 37(4):1324–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Vempati RK, Musthyala SC, Mollah MYA, Cocke DL (1995) Surface analyses of pyrolysed rice husk using scanning force microscopy. Fuel 74(11):1722–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ye J, Yin H, Mai B, Peng H, Qin H, He B, Zhang N (2010) Biosorption of chromium from aqueous solution and electroplating wastewater using mixture of Candida lipolytica and dewatered sewage sludge. Biores Technol 101(11):3893–3902CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Enzyme and Microbial Biochemistry Laboratory, Department of ChemistryIndian Institute of Technology DelhiNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Molecular Signal ProcessingLeibniz Institute for Plant BiochemistryHalle (Saale)Germany

Personalised recommendations