Advertisement

NDE of Additively Manufactured Parts via Directly Bonded and Mechanically Attached Electromechanical Impedance Sensors

  • C. Tenney
  • M. Albakri
  • C. B. Williams
  • P. Tarazaga
Conference paper
Part of the Conference Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Mechanics Series book series (CPSEMS)

Abstract

Additive Manufacturing (AM) allows increased complexity which poses challenges to quality-control (QC) and non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of manufactured parts. The lack of simple, reliable, and inexpensive methods for NDE of AM parts is a significant obstacle to wider adoption of AM parts.

Electromechanical impedance measurements have been investigated as a means to detect manufacturing defects in AM parts. Impedance-based NDE utilizes piezoelectric wafers as collocated sensors and actuators. Taking advantage of the coupled electromechanical characteristics of piezoelectric materials, the mechanical characteristics of the part under test can be inferred from the electrical impedance of the piezoelectric wafer. Previous efforts have used piezoelectric wafers bonded directly to the part under test, which imposes several challenges regarding the applicability and robustness of the technique. This paper investigates the use of an instrumented clamp as a solution for measuring the electromechanical impedance of the part under test. The effectiveness of this approach in detecting manufacturing defects is compared to directly bonded wafers.

Keywords

Electromechanical Impedance Non-Destructive Evaluation Additive Manufacturing Piezoelectrics Manufacturing Defects 

References

  1. 1.
    Du Plessis, A., Le Roux, S.G., Els, J., Booysen, G., Blaine, D.C.: Application of microCT to the non-destructive testing of an additive manufactured titanium component. Case Stud. Nondestruct. Test. Eval. 4, 1–7 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Albakri, M.I., Sturm, L.D., Williams, C.B., Tarazaga, P.A.: Impedance-based non-destructive evaluation of additively manufactured parts. Rapid Prototyp. J. 23(3), 589–601 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tenney, C., Albakri, M., Kubalak, J., Sturm, L., Williams, C., Tarazaga, P.: Internal porosity detection in additively manufactured parts via electromechanical impedance measurements. In: Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York (2017)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smart Material: Macro fiber composite (MFC) datasheet. p. 8, (2017)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Meitzler, A.H., Tiersten, H.F., Warner, A.W.: An American National Standard IEEE Standard on Piezoelectricity. IEEE, New York (1987)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Park, G., Sohn, H., Farrar, C.R., Inman, D.J.: Overview of piezoelectric impedance-based health monitoring and path forward. Shock Vib. Dig. 35(6), 451–463 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Liang, C., Sun, F.P., Rogers, C.A.: Coupled electro-mechanical analysis of adaptive material systems-determination of the actuator power consumption and system energy transfer. J. Intell. Mater. Syst. Struct. 8(4), 335–343 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bhalla, S., Surendra, A., Naidu, K., Wee, C.: Practical issues in the implementation of electro-mechanical impedance technique for NDE. SPIE. 4935, 484–494 (2002)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Tenney
    • 1
  • M. Albakri
    • 2
  • C. B. Williams
    • 3
  • P. Tarazaga
    • 2
  1. 1.Vibrations and Adaptive Structures Testing Laboratory (VAST), Design, Research & Education for Additive Manufacturing Systems (DREAMS) LabVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)BlacksburgUSA
  2. 2.Vibrations and Adaptive Structures Testing Laboratory (VAST)Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)BlacksburgUSA
  3. 3.Design, Research & Education for Additive Manufacturing Systems (DREAMS) LabVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech)BlacksburgUSA

Personalised recommendations