Processing and Representation of Morphological Complexity in Native Language Comprehension and Production

  • Pienie Zwitserlood
Part of the Studies in Morphology book series (SUMO, volume 4)


Psycholinguistic research has been concerned with the processing and representation of morphologically complex words for many decades. Leading questions are whether complex words are stored as wholes, or parsed during listening and reading – and assembled from their constituents during speaking. This chapter reviews psycholinguistic theories and data – mainly from English, Dutch and German – on the role of morphology in in language comprehension and production. Processing theories range from full storage independent of morphological complexity to full parsing of complex words. Parsing and composition – for which there is ample evidence from many languages – require morphemes to be stored, in addition to information as to how morphemes are combined, or to whole-word representations specifying the combination. Next to evidence for (de)composition, many studies indeed show that complex words as a whole play a role during processing, often demonstrated by effects of whole-word frequency. Processing models have been developed to account for such effects, taking into account differences between inflection, derivation and compounding – supported by neuroimaging studies – as well as the semantic transparency of the combination, often investigated with complex verbs and compounds. What is lacking, is an integrative model for the representation of complex words that accommodates the wealth of experimental data from both production and comprehension. This is where recent approaches from linguistic morphology may become relevant. The article concludes with a brief evaluation of proposals from construction morphology, and how they may accommodate what is known about online morphological representation and processing and in adult native speakers.


Composition Language comprehension Language production Parsing Transparency Whole-word representation Word processing 


  1. Alegre, M., and P. Gordon. 1999. Frequency effects and the representational status of regular inflections. Journal of Memory and Language 40: 41–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amenta, S., and D. Crepaldi. 2012. Morphological processing as we know it: An analytical review of morphological effects in visual word identification. Frontiers in Language Sciences 3 (232).Google Scholar
  3. Baayen, R.H., C. Burani, and R. Schreuder. 1997a. Effects of semantic markedness in the processing of regular nominal singulars and plurals in Italian. In Yearbook of morphology 1996, ed. G. Booij and J. van Marle, 13–34. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baayen, R.H., T. Dijkstra, and R. Schreuder. 1997b. Singulars and plurals in Dutch: Evidence for a parallel dual-route model. Journal of Memory and Language 37: 94–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baayen, R.H., J. McQueen, T. Dijkstra, and R. Schreuder. 2003. Frequency effects in regular inflectional morphology: Revisiting Dutch plurals. In Morphological structure in language processing, ed. R.H. Baayen and R. Schreuder, 355–390. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baayen, R.H., P. Milin, D.F. Đurđević, P. Hendrix, and M. Marelli. 2011. An amorphous model for morphological processing in visual comprehension based on naive discriminative learning. Psychological Review 118 (3): 438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Badecker, W., and A. Caramazza. 1991. Morphological composition in the lexical output system. Cognitive Neuropsychology 8 (5): 335–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Badecker, W., A. Hillis, and A. Caramazza. 1990. Lexical morphology and its role in the writing process: Evidence from a case of acquired dysgraphia. Cognition 35 (3): 205–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bentin, S., and L.B. Feldman. 1990. The contribution of morphological and semantic relatedness to repetition priming at short and long lags: Evidence from Hebrew. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (4): 693–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bertram, R., M. Laine, and K. Karvinen. 1999. The interplay of word formation type, affixal homonymy, and productivity in lexical processing: Evidence from a morphologically rich language. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 28 (3): 213–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertram, R., R.H. Baayen, and R. Schreuder. 2000. Effects of family size for complex words. Journal of Memory and Language 42 (3): 390–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beyersmann, E., E.M. Dutton, S. Amer, N.O. Schiller, and B. Biedermann. 2015. The production of singular-and plural-dominant nouns in Dutch. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 30: 867–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bick, A.S., R. Frost, and G. Goelman. 2010. Imaging implicit morphological processing: Evidence from Hebrew. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 22 (9): 1955–1969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bölte, J., P. Zwitserlood, and P. Dohmes. 2004. Morphology in experimental speech production research. In Current research on language production in Germany, ed. Th. Pechman and Ch. Habel, 431–472. Berlin: Mouton.Google Scholar
  15. Booij, G. 2010. Construction morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2016. Construction morphology. In The Cambridge handbook of morphology, ed. A. Hippisley and G. Stump, 424–448. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Booij, G., and J. Audring. 2017. Construction morphology and the parallel architecture of grammar. Cognitive Science 41 (S2): 277–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Booij, G., and J. Audring. 2018. Partial motivation, multiple motivation, and the role of output schemas. This volume.Google Scholar
  19. Boudelaa, S., and W.D. Marslen-Wilson. 2015. Structure, form, and meaning in the mental lexicon: Evidence from Arabic. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 30 (8): 955–992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bozic, M., and W. Marslen-Wilson. 2010. Neurocognitive contexts for morphological complexity: Dissociating inflection and derivation. Language and Linguistics Compass 4 (11): 1063–1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bozic, M., W.D. Marslen-Wilson, E.A. Stamatakis, M.H. Davis, and L.K. Tyler. 2007. Differentiating morphology, form, and meaning: Neural correlates of morphological complexity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 19 (9): 1464–1475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bozic, M., L.K. Tyler, D.T. Ives, B. Randall, and W.D. Marslen-Wilson. 2010. Bihemispheric foundations for human speech comprehension. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (40): 17439–17444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Brovetto, C., and M.T. Ullman. 2005. The mental representation and processing of Spanish verbal morphology. In Selected proceedings of the 7th Hispanic linguistics symposium, ed. D. Eddington, 98–105. Somerville: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.Google Scholar
  24. Burani, C., and A. Laudanna. 1992. Units of representation for derived words in the lexicon. Advances in Psychology 94: 361–376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Caramazza, A. 1997. How many levels of processing are there in lexical access? Cognitive Neuropsychology 14 (1): 177–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Caramazza, A., and M. Miozzo. 1997. The relation between syntactic and phonological knowledge in lexical access: Evidence from the ‘tip-of-the-tongue’ phenomenon. Cognition 64 (3): 309–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Carota, F., M. Bozic, and W.D. Marslen-Wilson. 2016. Decompositional representation of morphological complexity: Multivariate fMRI evidence from Italian. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 28: 1878. Scholar
  28. Chialant, D., and A. Caramazza. 1995. Where is morphology and how is it processed? The case of written word recognition. In Morphological aspects of language processing, ed. L.B. Feldman, 55–769. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  29. Clahsen, H. 1999. Lexical entries and rules of language: A multidisciplinary study of German inflection. Brain and Behavioral Sciences: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Current Research 22: 991–1060.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 2016. Experimental studies of morphology and morphological processing. In The Cambridge handbook of morphology, ed. A. Hippisley and G. Stump, 792–819. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Colé, P., C. Beauvillain, and J. Segui. 1989. On the representation and processing of prefixed and suffixed derived words: A differential frequency effect. Journal of Memory and Language 28: 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Cutler, A. 1995. Spoken word recognition and production. In Speech, language and communication, 97–136. New York: Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cutler, A., J.A. Hawkins, and G. Gilligan. 1985. The suffixing preference: A processing explanation. Linguistics 23 (5): 723–758.Google Scholar
  34. Dell, G.S. 1988. The retrieval of phonological forms in production: Tests of predictions from a connectionist model. Journal of Memory and Language 27 (2): 124–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dell, G.S., and P.G. O’Seaghdha. 1992. Stages of lexical access in language production. Cognition 42 (1): 287–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dohmes, P., P. Zwitserlood, and J. Bölte. 2004. The impact of semantic transparency of morphologically complex words on picture naming. Brain and Language 90: 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dominguez, A., F. Cuetos, and J. Segui. 1999. The processing of grammatical gender and number in Spanish. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 28: 485–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dominguez, A., J. Segui, and F. Cuetos. 2002. The time-course of inflexional morphological priming. Linguistics 40 (2): 235–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Drews, E., and P. Zwitserlood. 1995. Orthographic and morphological similarity in visual word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 21 (5): 1098–1116.Google Scholar
  40. Feldman, L.B. 2000. Are morphological effects distinguishable from the effects of shared meaning and shared form? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 26 (6): 1431–1444.Google Scholar
  41. ———., ed. 2013. Morphological aspects of language processing. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  42. Feldman, L.B., and E.G. Soltano. 1999. Morphological priming: The role of prime duration, semantic transparency, and affix position. Brain and Language 68 (1–2): 33–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Frost, R., and J. Grainger. 2000. Crosslinguistic perspectives on morphological processing. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  44. Frost, R., K.I. Forster, and A. Deutsch. 1997. What can we learn from the morphology of Hebrew? A masked-priming investigation of morphological representation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 23: 829.Google Scholar
  45. Frost, R., A. Deutsch, O. Gilboa, M. Tannenbaum, and W. Marslen-Wilson. 2000. Morphological priming: Dissociation of phonological, semantic, and morphological factors. Memory & Cognition 28 (8): 1277–1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Garrett, M.F. 1988. Processes in language production. In Linguistics: The Cambridge survey, ed. F. Newmeyer, vol. 3, 69–96. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Giraudo, H., and S. dal Maso. 2018. Towards a constructional approach of L2 morphological processing. This volume.Google Scholar
  48. Giraudo, H., and J. Grainger. 2001. Priming complex words: Evidence for supralexical representation of morphology. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 8 (1): 127–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Giraudo, H., and M. Voga. 2014. Measuring morphology: The tip of the iceberg? A retrospective on 10 years of morphological processing. Cahiers de Grammaire 22: 136–167.Google Scholar
  50. Gonnerman, L.M., M.S. Seidenberg, and E.S. Andersen. 2007. Graded semantic and phonological similarity effects in priming: Evidence for a distributed connectionist approach to morphology. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 136 (2): 323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Grainger, J., P. Colé, and J. Segui. 1991. Masked morphological priming in visual word recognition. Journal of Memory and Language 30 (3): 370–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gumnior, H., J. Bölte, and P. Zwitserlood. 2006. A chatterbox is a box: Morphology in German word production. Language and Cognitive Processes 21: 920–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hagoort, P. 2005. On Broca, brain, and binding: A new framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (9): 416–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hickok, G., and D. Poeppel. 2000. Towards a functional neuroanatomy of speech perception. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (4): 131–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jackendoff, R. 2015. In defense of theory. Cognitive Science 41 (S2): 185–212.Google Scholar
  56. Jackendoff, R., and J. Audring. 2016. Morphological schemas. The Mental Lexicon 11 (3): 467–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Janssen, N., Y. Bi, and A. Caramazza. 2008. A tale of two frequencies: Determining the speed of lexical access for Mandarin Chinese and English compounds. Language and Cognitive Processes 23 (7–8): 1191–1223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Koester, D., and N.O. Schiller. 2008. Morphological priming in overt language production: Electrophysiological evidence from Dutch. NeuroImage 42 (4): 1622–1630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. ———. 2011. The functional neuroanatomy of morphology in language production. NeuroImage 55 (2): 732–741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kolan, L., M. Leikin, and P. Zwitserlood. 2011. Morphological processing and lexical access in speech production in Hebrew: Evidence from picture-word interference. Journal of Memory and Language 65 (3): 286–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Laudanna, A., and C. Burani. 1995. Distributional properties of derivational affixes: Implications for processing. In Morphological aspects of language processing, ed. L.B. Feldmann, 345–364. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  62. Lehtonen, M., and M. Laine. 2003. How word frequency affects morphological processing in monolinguals and bilinguals. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition 6: 213–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Leminen, A., and H. Clahsen. 2014. Brain potentials to inflected adjectives: Beyond storage and decomposition. Brain Research 1543: 223–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Levelt, W.J.M. 1989. Speaking. From intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  65. Levelt, W.J., A. Roelofs, and A.S. Meyer. 1999. A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (1): 1–38.Google Scholar
  66. Longtin, C.M., J. Segui, and P.A. Hallé. 2003. Morphological priming without morphological relationship. Language and Cognitive Processes 18 (3): 313–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Lorenz, A., and P. Zwitserlood. 2014. Processing of nominal compounds and gender-marked determiners in aphasia: Evidence from German. Cognitive Neuropsychology 31: 40–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. ———. 2016. Semantically transparent and opaque compounds in German noun-phrase production: Evidence for morphemes in speaking. Frontiers in Psychology 7: 1943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lüttmann, H., P. Zwitserlood, A. Böhl, and J. Bölte. 2011a. Evidence for morphological composition at the form level in speech production. Journal of Cognitive Psychology 23: 818–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lüttmann, H., P. Zwitserlood, and J. Bölte. 2011b. Sharing morphemes without sharing meaning: Production and comprehension of German verbs in the context of morphological relatives. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (3): 173–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Manelis, L., and D.A. Tharp. 1977. The processing of affixed words. Memory & Cognition 5 (6): 690–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Marslen-Wilson, W. 1999. Abstractness and combination: The morphemic lexicon. In Language processing, ed. S. Garrod and M.J. Pickering, 101–119. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  73. Marslen-Wilson, W. D. 2007. Processes in language comprehension. In M.G. Gaskell (Ed.),The Oxford handbook of psycholinguistics, 11(175), 495–524 Oxford: Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  74. Marslen-Wilson, W., L.K. Tyler, R. Waksler, and L. Older. 1994. Morphology and meaning in the English mental lexicon. Psychological Review 101 (1): 3–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Marslen-Wilson, W., M. Bozic, and L.K. Tyler. 2014. Morphological systems in their neurobiological contexts. In The cognitive neurosciences, ed. M.S. Gazzaniga and G.R. Mangun, 5th ed. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  76. Meunier, F., and W. Marslen-Wilson. 2004. Regularity and irregularity in French verbal inflection. Language and Cognitive Processes 19: 561–580.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Napps, S.E. 1989. Morphemic relationships in the lexicon: Are they distinct from semantic and formal relationships? Memory and Cognition 17: 729–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. New, B., M. Brysbaert, J. Segui, L. Ferrand, and K. Rastle. 2004. The processing of singular and plural nouns in French and English. Journal of Memory and Language 51: 568–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Orsolini, M., and W. Marslen-Wilson. 1997. Universals in morphological representation: Evidence from Italian. Language and Cognitive Processes 12: 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Osgood, C.E., and R. Hoosain. 1974. Salience of the word as a unit in the perception of language. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 15 (1): 168–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pinker, S. 1999. Words and rules: The ingredients of language. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  82. Pinker, S., and M.T. Ullman. 2002. The past and future of the past tense. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6: 456–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Plaut, D.C. 2011. Connectionist perspectives on lexical representation. In Lexical representation: A multidisciplinary approach, ed. G. Gaskell and P. Zwitserlood, 149–169. Berlin: De Gruyter.Google Scholar
  84. Prasada, S., and S. Pinker. 1993. Generalisation of regular and irregular morphological patterns. Language and Cognitive Processes 8: 1–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rastle, K., and M.H. Davis. 2008. Morphological decomposition based on the analysis of orthography. Language and Cognitive Processes 23 (7–8): 942–971.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Rastle, K., M.H. Davis, W.D. Marslen-Wilson, and L.K. Tyler. 2000. Morphological and semantic effects in visual word recognition: A time-course study. Language and Cognitive Processes 15 (4–5): 507–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Raveh, M., and J.G. Rueckl. 2000. Equivalent effects of inflected and derived primes: Long-term morphological priming in fragment completion and lexical decision. Journal of Memory and Language 42 (1): 103–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Reid, A.A., and W.D. Marslen-Wilson. 2003. Lexical representation of morphologically complex words: Evidence from polish. In Morphological structure in language processing, ed. R.H. Baayen and R. Schreuder, 287–336. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  89. Reifegerste, J., A.S. Meyer, and P. Zwitserlood. 2017. Inflectional complexity and experience affect plural processing in younger and older readers of Dutch and German. Language, Cognition and Neuroscience 32 (4): 471–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Roelofs, A., and R.H. Baayen. 2002. Morphology by itself in planning the production of spoken words. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 9 (1): 132–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rueckl, J.G., M. Mikolinski, M. Raveh, C.S. Miner, and F. Mars. 1997. Morphological priming, fragment completion, and connectionist networks. Journal of Memory and Language 36 (3): 382–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schreuder, R., and R.H. Baayen. 1995. Modeling morphological processing. In Morphological aspects of language processing, ed. L.B. Feldman, 131–154. Hove: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  93. Schriefers, H., P. Zwitserlood, and A. Roelofs. 1991. The identification of morphologically complex spoken words: Continuous processing or decomposition? Journal of Memory and Language 30 (1): 26–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Smolka, E., P. Zwitserlood, and F. Rösler. 2007. Stem access in regular and irregular inflection: Evidence from German participles. Journal of Memory and Language 57 (3): 325–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Smolka, E., P.H. Khader, R. Wiese, P. Zwitserlood, and F. Rösler. 2013. Electrophysiological evidence for the continuous processing of linguistic categories of regular and irregular verb inflection in German. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 25 (8): 1284–1304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Smolka, E., K.H. Preller, and C. Eulitz. 2014. ‘Verstehen’(‘understand’) primes ‘stehen’(‘stand’): Morphological structure overrides semantic compositionality in the lexical representation of German complex verbs. Journal of Memory and Language 72: 16–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sonnenstuhl, I., S. Eisenbeiss, and H. Clahsen. 1999. Morphological priming in the German mental lexicon. Cognition 72: 203–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Soveri, A., M. Lehtonen, and M. Laine. 2007. Word frequency and morphological processing in Finnish revisited. Mental Lexicon 2 (3): 359–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stanners, R.F., J.J. Neiser, W.P. Hernon, and R. Hall. 1979. Memory representation for morphologically related words. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 18: 399–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Stemberger, J.P., and B. MacWhinney. 1986. Frequency and the lexical storage of regularly inflected forms. Memory and Cognition 14: 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Taft, M. 1979. Recognition of affixed words and the word frequency effect. Memory & Cognition 7 (4): 263–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. ———. 1994. Interactive-activation as a framework for understanding morphological processing. Language and cognitive Processes 9 (3): 271–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. ———. 2004. Morphological decomposition and the reverse base frequency effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A 57 (4): 745–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Taft, M., and K.I. Forster. 1975. Lexical storage and retrieval of prefixed words. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 14 (6): 638–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. ———. 1976. Lexical storage and retrieval of polymorphemic and polysyllabic words. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior 15 (6): 607–620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tyler, L.K., W. Marslen-Wilson, J. Rentoul, and P. Hanney. 1988. Continuous and discontinuous access in spoken word-recognition: The role of derivational prefixes. Journal of Memory and Language 27 (4): 368–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ullman, M.T. 2001. The declarative/procedural model of lexicon and grammar. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 30: 37–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Verdonschot, R.G., R. Middelburg, S.E. Lensink, and N.O. Schiller. 2012. Morphological priming survives a language switch. Cognition 124 (3): 343–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Veríssimo, J., and H. Clahsen. 2009. Morphological priming by itself: A study of Portuguese conjugations. Cognition 112: 187–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Westermann, G., and N. Ruh. 2012. A neuroconstructivist model of past tense development and processing. Psychological Review 119 (3): 649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wurm, L.H. 1997. Auditory processing of prefixed English words is both continuous and decompositional. Journal of Memory and Language 37 (3): 438–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Zwitserlood, P. 1994. Processing and representation of Dutch compounds: Effects of semantic transparency. Language and Cognitive Processes 9 (3): 341–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. ———. 1996. Form priming. Language and Cognitive Processes 11 (6): 589–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. ———. 2003. The internal structure of words: Consequences for listening and speaking. In Phonetics and phonology in language comprehension and production. Differences and similarities, ed. N.O. Schiller and A.S. Meyer, 79–114. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  115. ———. 2004. Sublexical and morphological information in speech processing. Brain and Language 90: 368–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Zwitserlood, P., E. Drews, A. Bolwiender, and E. Neuwinger. 1996. Kann man Geschenke umbringen? Assoziative Bahnungsexperimente zur Bedeutungsheterogenität von Verben. In Perspektiven der kognitiven Linguistik, ed. C. Habel, S. Kanngießer, and G. Rickheit. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
  117. Zwitserlood, P., J. Bölte, and P. Dohmes. 2000. Morphological processing and speech production: Evidence from picture naming. Language and Cognitive Processes 15: 563–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. ———. 2002. Where and how morphologically complex words interplay with naming pictures. Brain and Language 81: 358–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zwitserlood, P., A. Bolwiender, and E. Drews. 2005. Priming morphologically complex verbs by sentence contexts: Effects of semantic transparency and ambiguity. Language and Cognitive Processes 20: 395–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for PsychologyWestfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMünsterGermany

Personalised recommendations