Advertisement

Juana I pp 279-303 | Cite as

The Politics of Penitence (1521–1539)

  • Gillian B. Fleming
Chapter
Part of the Queenship and Power book series (QAP)

Abstract

Following the tumultuous events outlined in the previous two chapters, I demonstrate how these events, and the fear of future political and religious upheaval, ensured that Juana would be kept out of sight and, as far as possible, out of mind. The emperor and marquis of Denia are shown as directors of a theatre of illusion, designed to entirely isolate the queen from the outside world. This in turn impacted seriously on Juana’s mental state. In this context, attitudes to ‘madness’ and the difference between ‘madness’ and the ‘melancholy’ widely attributed to Juana, are discussed. As conflict continued both inside and outside the palace of Tordesillas many, including Charles himself, linked comunero agitation to the influence of the converso community and, by extension, to Lutheranism, which was spreading fast throughout Europe. In Spain, Lutheranism was associated with illuminism and related spiritual trends, and the post-comunero period saw the development of what has been termed a ‘generational phenomenon’ of spiritual self-questioning among members of the nobility. Although the troubled religious situation in Castile in the second half of the 1520 and 1530s can only be explored here very briefly, it provides the background against which the empress Isabel—who governed Castile for much of this time—tried repeatedly to persuade the proprietary queen of Castile and Aragon to confess her sins and conduct herself in a suitably pious manner. I re-examine the question of the queen’s resistance to the rite of penitence as she struggled with her ‘melancholy’ and bouts of despair. I argue against the influential notion that Juana deliberately ‘retired’ to carry out a form of spiritual withdrawal or recogimiento, and conclude by suggesting that Juana’s resistance to the rites of penitence cannot be disassociated from her situation as a political prisoner.

References

  1. Aram, Bethany. 2005. Juana the Mad: Sovereignty and Dynasty in Renaissance Europe. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  2. ———. 2008. Queen Juana: Legend and History. In Juana of Castile: History and Myth of the Mad Queen, ed. María A. Gómez, Santiago Juan-Navarro, and Phyllis Zatlin. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Avalle-Arce, Juan Bautista de. 1994. Cancionero del Almirante Don Fadrique Enríquez. Barcelona: Quaderns Crema.Google Scholar
  4. Bergenroth, G.A. (ed.). 1868. Calendar of State Papers, Supplement to Vol. I and Vol. II of Letters, Despatches and State Papers Relating to Negotiations Between England and Spain, Preserved in the Archives of Simancas and Elsewhere. London: Longmans, Green, Reader and Dyer.Google Scholar
  5. Brewer, John Sherren. 1920. Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry , vol. VIII. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, Rawdon (ed.). 1869. Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs in the Archives of Venice (1520–1526), vol. 3. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  7. Burton, Robert. 2001. The Anatomy of Melancholy, ed. H. Jackson. New York: New York Review of Books.Google Scholar
  8. Caro Baroja, Julio. 1992. Vidas mágicas y Inquisición, vol. I. Madrid: Akal.Google Scholar
  9. Castañeda Tordera, Isidoro. 2008. La Proyección de las Comunidades. Memoria, Represión y Olvido. In Castilla en llamas. La Mancha comunera, ed. Miguel F. Gómez Vozmediano. Ciudad Real: Almud.Google Scholar
  10. Checa, Fernando. 2008. Tapisseries flamandes pour les ducs de Bourgogne, l’empereur Charles-Quint et le roi Philippe II. Brussels: Fonds Mercator.Google Scholar
  11. Danvila y Collado, Manuel (ed.). 1897–1900. Historia crítica y documentada de las Comunidades de Castilla. Madrid: Memoria Histórico Español.Google Scholar
  12. Fernández Álvarez, Manuel. 2002. Casadas, Monjas, Rameras y Brujas: La olvidada historia de la mujer española en el Renacimiento. Madrid: Espasa Calpe.Google Scholar
  13. Fichtner, Paula Sutter. 2001. Emperor Maximilian II. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Gachard, Louis-Prosper (ed.). 1881. Premier Voyage de Charles-Quint en Espagne de 1517 à 1518. In Collection des Voyages des Souverains des Pays-Bas, vol. III. Brussels: Commission Royale d’Histoire.Google Scholar
  15. Giurato, Simona. 2003. La Sicilia di Ferdinando el Católico: Tradizioni politiche e conflicto tra Quattrocento y Cinquecento (1468–1523). Messina: Rubbettino.Google Scholar
  16. González Olmedo, S.I., Félix. 1944. Diego Ramírez Villaescusa (1459–1537), fundador del Colegio de Cuenca y autor de los Cuatro Diálogos sobre la Muerte del Príncipe Don Juan. Madrid: Editora Nacional.Google Scholar
  17. Grassian, Stuart. 1983. Psychiatric Effects of Solitary Confinement. Washington University Journal of Law and Policy 22: 325.Google Scholar
  18. Guiance, Ariel. 1998. Los Discursos sobre la Muerte en la Castilla medieval (Siglos VII–XV). Valladolid: Junta de Castilla y León.Google Scholar
  19. Guicciardini, Francesco (ed.). 1775–1776. Della Storia d’Italia. Florence: Friburgo.Google Scholar
  20. Guisado, Maite (ed.). 1987. Cartes Íntimes d’una Dama Catalana del S. XVI. Barcelona: La Sal.Google Scholar
  21. J.T.R.D. 1994. Memorial del tesorero de la Reina Juana, Ochoa de Landa, “a mi señor el Licenciado”, remitiéndole la receta propuesta por una comadre de Simancas para curar la enfermedad de su esposa. (1531?) In Tordesillas 1494. Valladolid: Sociedad V Centenario del Tratado de Tordesillas, 221.Google Scholar
  22. Kren, Thomas, and Scot McKenrick (eds.). 2003. Illuminating the Renaissance: The Triumph of Flemish Manuscript Painting in Europe. Los Angeles and London: J. Paul Getty Trust.Google Scholar
  23. Lisón Tolosana, Carmelo. 1990. La España Mental: Demonios y Exorcismos en los Siglos de Oro. Madrid: Ediciones Akal.Google Scholar
  24. Lorenzo Arribas, Josemi. 2004. Juana I de Castilla y Aragón (1479–1555). Madrid: Ediciones del Orto.Google Scholar
  25. Mattingly, Garrett (ed.). 1940. Further Supplement to Letters, Despatches and State Papers Relating to Communications Between England and Spain, Preserved in the Archives of Vienna and Elsewhere (1513–1542). London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  26. Muller, Priscilla E. 2012. Jewels in Spain, 1500–1800. El Viso: Hispanic Society of America.Google Scholar
  27. Nalle, Sara T. 1992. God in La Mancha: Religious Reform and the People of Cuenca, 1500–1650. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Pérez, Joseph. 1999. Carlos V. Madrid: Temas de Hoy.Google Scholar
  29. Porter, Roy. 2002. Madness: A Brief History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Radice, Betty, and M.T. Clancy (eds.). 2003. The Letters of Abelard and Heloise. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  31. Rawlings, Helen. 2002. Church, Religion and Society in Early Modern Spain. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rodríguez-Salgado, María-José. 1988. The Changing Face of Empire: Charles V, Philip II and Habsburg Authority, 1551–1559. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Rodríguez Villa, Antonio (ed.). 1903. El Emperador Carlos V y su Corte según las cartas de Don Martín de Salinas, embajador del Infante Don Fernando (1522–1539). Madrid: Real Academía de la Historia.Google Scholar
  34. Sánchez, Magdalena S. 1998. The Empress, the Queen, and the Nun: Women and Power at the Court of Philip III of Spain. Baltimore and London: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Sandoval, Prudencio de. 1955–1956. Historia de la Vida y Hechos del Emperador Carlos V, ed. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Españoles.Google Scholar
  36. Schaler, Sharon. 2008. Sourcebook on Solitary Confinement: The health effects of solitary confinement. London: Mannheim Centre for the Study of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 10–24.Google Scholar
  37. Silva, Alfonso Franco. 2006. Entre la Derrota y la Esperanza. Cádiz: Universidad de Cádiz.Google Scholar
  38. Styron, William. 2001. Darkness Visible: A Memoir of Madness. London: Vintage Classics.Google Scholar
  39. Venegas, Alejo. 2001. Agonía del Tránsito de la Muerte, ed. Marc Zuili. Paris: Harmattan.Google Scholar
  40. Villacorta Baños-García, Antonio. 2005. La Jesuita. Barcelona: Ariel.Google Scholar
  41. Zalama, Miguel-Ángel. 2003. Vida cotidiana y Arte en el Palacio de la Reina Juana I en Tordesillas. Valladolid: Universidad de Valladolid.Google Scholar
  42. ———. 2010. Juana I. Arte, Poder y cultura en torno a una reina que no gobernó. Valladolid: Centro de Estudios Europa Hispánica.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gillian B. Fleming
    • 1
  1. 1.BrightonUK

Personalised recommendations