Skip to main content

Management of Landscape Services for Improving Community Welfare in West Java, Indonesia

Abstract

A sustainable management of landscape services is needed to resolve ecological problems in rural and urban landscapes, particularly in developing countries, such as Indonesia. A specific management for particular area such as homegarden has to be developed in order to improve utilization of landscape services based on community activities. Four classic landscape services, i.e. biodiversity conservation, carbon stock and sequestration, water resources management, and landscape beautification are approached inside intensively managed homegarden. The landscape ecology approach was conducted through micro-, meso-, and macro-scales to figure out the potential ecology-economy-social benefit for urban-rural landscape inside homegarden as a small-scale agroforestry landscape or usually called as “pekarangan”. A well planned and managed agroforestry landscape practices may suppress social, economical and ecological condition in rural marginal society and would improve the community welfare. Therefore, by managing pekarangan systems for landscape services, marginal communities would have the possibility to advance their asset of landscape services through plant biodiversity (H′), carbon stock (C), water resources utilization, and scenic beauty inside pekarangan. The aims of this research are to develop basic landscape service of plant biodiversity, carbon stock, water management and landscape beautification and to arrange recommendation for revitalizing pekarangan. The results show that pekarangan has diverse plant biodiversity (0.77–3.57) and diverse carbon stock (0.13–136.20 Mg/ha). Pekarangan also has the ability to utilize water effectively and at the same time contribute to provide amenity from its beautification for human well-being. Those landscape services provided by pekarangan could directly and indirectly improves the community welfare.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-74328-8_15
  • Chapter length: 20 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   149.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-319-74328-8
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Hardcover Book
USD   199.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  • Abdoellah O, Hadikusumah H, Takeuchi K, Okubo S, Parikesit (2006) Commercialization of homegardens in an Indonesian village: vegetation composition and functional changes. In: Kumar B, Nair P (eds) Tropical homegardens. Springer, Netherlands, pp 233–250

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Albrecht A, Kandji ST (2003) Carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems. Agric Ecosyst Environ 99(1–3):13

    Google Scholar 

  • Ali A, Xu M-S, Zhao Y-T et al (2015) Allometric biomass equations for shrub and small tree species in subtropical China. Silva Fennica 49:1–10

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Alvarez-Cobelas M, Cirujano S, Sanchez-Carrillo S (2001) Hydrological and botanical man-made changes in the Spanish wetland of Las Tablas de Daimiel. Biol Cons 97:89–98

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arifin HS, Nakagoshi N (2011) Landscape ecology and urban biodiversity in tropical Indonesian cities. Landsc Ecol Eng 7(1):33–43

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Arifin HS, Sakamoto K, Takeuchi T (2001) Study of rural landscape structure based on its different bio-climatic conditions in middle part of Citarum watershed, Cianjur District, West Java, Indonesia. In: JSPS-DGHE Core University program in applied biosciences, Tokyo 2001. The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, pp 99–108

    Google Scholar 

  • Arifin HS, Kaswanto RL, Nakagoshi N (2014) Low carbon society through Pekarangan, traditional agroforestry practices in Java, Indonesia. In: Nakagoshi N, Mabuhay JA (eds) Designing low carbon societies in Landscapes. Springer, Tokyo, pp 129–143

    Google Scholar 

  • Backes MM (2001) The role of indigenous trees for the conservation of biocultural diversity in traditional agroforestry land use systems: the Bungoma case study: in-situ conservation of indigenous tree species. Agrofor Syst 50(2):119–132

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Bajigo A, Tadesse M, Moges Y, Anjulo A (2015) Estimation of carbon stored in agroforestry practices in Gununo watershed, Wolayitta zone, Ethiopia. J Ecosyst Ecogr 5(1):1

    Google Scholar 

  • Baker TR, Phillips OL, Malhi Y et al (2004) Variation in wood density determines spatial patterns in Amazonian forest biomass. Glob Change Biol 10(5):545–562

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Brown S, Food, Nations AOotU (1997) Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests: a primer. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome

    Google Scholar 

  • Chave J, Andalo C, Brown S et al (2005) Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia 145(1):87–99

    CAS  CrossRef  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Christanty L (1986) Shifting cultivation and tropical soils: patterns, problems, and possible improvements. In: Marten GG (ed) Citeseer

    Google Scholar 

  • Christanty L (1990) Home gardens in tropical Asia, with special reference to Indonesia. In: Landauer K, Brazil M (eds) Tropical home gardens. The United National University, Tokyo, pp 9–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Christanty L, Abdoellah OS, Marten GG, Iskandar J (1986) Traditional agroforestry in West Java: the pekarangan (homegardens) and kebun talun (annual-perennial rotation) cropping systems. In: Marten GG (ed) Traditional agriculture in South-east Asia. Westview, Boulder, pp 132–158

    Google Scholar 

  • Coiner C, Wu J, Polasky S (2001) Economic and environmental implications of alternative landscape design in the Walnut Creek watershed of Iowa. Ecol Econ 38:119–139

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Cramb R, Colfer C, Dressler W et al (2009) Swidden transformations and rural livelihoods in Southeast Asia. Hum Ecol: An Interdiscip J 37(3):24

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Daniel TC, Boster RS (1976) Measuring landscape exthetics: the scenic beauty estimation method. University of Arizona, Tucson

    Google Scholar 

  • Dayamba SD, Djoudi H, Zida M, Sawadogo L, Verchot L (2016) Biodiversity and carbon stocks in different land use types in the Sudanian zone of Burkina Faso, West Africa. Agric Ecosyst Environ 216:61–72

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Febriana NPR, Kaswanto RL (2015) Tourism track management of Cibeureum waterfall as a provider of landscape beautification service at Gunung Gede Pangrango National Park. Procedia Environ Sci 24:174–183

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Filqisthi TA, Kaswanto RL (2017) Carbon stock and plants biodiversity of pekarangan in Cisadane watershed West Java. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 54(1):012024

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Franco D, Franco D, Mannino I, Zanetto G (2003) The impact of agroforestry networks on scenic beauty estimation: the role of a landscape ecological network on a socio-cultural process. Landsc Urban Plan 62(3):119–138

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Garrido P, Elbakidze M, Angelstam P, Plieninger T, Pulido F, Moreno G (2017) Stakeholder perspectives of wood-pasture ecosystem services: a case study from Iberian dehesas. Land Use Policy 60:324–333

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Hairiah K, Rahayu S (2007) Pengukuran karbon tersimpan di berbagai macam penggunaan lahan. World Agroforestry Centre-ICRAF, SEA Regional Office, University of Brawijaya, Unibraw, Bogor

    Google Scholar 

  • Harashina K, Takeuchi K, Tsunekawa A, Arifin HS (2003) Nitrogen flows due to human activities in the Cianjur-Cisokan watershed area in the middle Citarum drainage basin, West Java, Indonesia: a case study at hamlet scale. Agric Ecosyst Environ 100(1):75–90

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Henry M, Tittonell P, Manlay RJ, Bernoux M, Albrecht A, Vanlauwe B (2009) Biodiversity, carbon stocks and sequestration potential in aboveground biomass in smallholder farming systems of western Kenya. Agric Ecosyst Environ 129(1–3):15

    Google Scholar 

  • Hochegger K (1998) Farming like the forest-traditional home garden system in Sri Lanka. Margraf Weikersheim, Germany

    Google Scholar 

  • Hylander K, Nemomissa S (2009) Complementary roles of home gardens and exotic tree plantations as alternative habitats for plants of the Ethiopian Montane rainforest. Conserv Biol 23(2):10

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Janauer GA (2000) Ecohydrology: fusing concepts and scales. Ecol Eng 16:9–16

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kabir ME, Webb EL (2008) Can homegardens conserve biodiversity in Bangladesh? Biotropica 40(1):95–103

    Google Scholar 

  • Kammerbauer J, Cordoba B, Escolan R, Flores S, Ramirez V, Zeledon J (2001) Identification of development indicators in tropical mountainous regions and some implications for natural resource policy designs: an integrated community case study. Ecol Econ 36:45–60

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karima A, Kaswanto RL (2017) Land use cover changes and water quality of Cipunten Agung Watershed Banten. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci 54(1):012025

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Karna Y, Hussin Y, Bronsveld M, Karky BS (2012) Mapping above ground carbon using worldview satellite image and lidar data in relationship with tree diversity of forests. The Netherlands: Master’s thesis, Faculty of Geoinformation Science and Earth Observation, University of Twente, Enschede

    Google Scholar 

  • Karyono (1990) Homegardens in Java: their structure and function. In: Landauer K, Brazil M (eds) Tropical homegardens. United Nations University Press, Tokyo

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaswanto RL (2015) Land suitability for agrotourism through agriculture, tourism, beautification and amenity (ATBA) method. Procedia Environ Sci 24:35–38

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Kaswanto RL, Nakagoshi N (2011) Landscape ecology based approach for assessing Pekarangan condition to preserve protected areas in West Java. In: Proceeding of the 8th international association for landscape ecology (IALE) world congress CD-ROM. IALE Organizing Committee, Beijing

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaswanto RL, Nakagoshi N (2014) Landscape ecology-based approach for assessing Pekarangan condition to preserve protected area in West Java. In: Nakagoshi N, Mabuhay JA (eds) Designing low carbon societies in Landscapes. Springer, Tokyo, pp 289–311

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaswanto RL, Arifin HS, Munandar A, Iiyama K (2008) Sustainable water management in the rural landscape of Cianjur watershed, Cianjur District, West Java, Indonesia. J Intern Soci Southeast Asian Agric Sci (ISSAAS) 14(1):33–45

    Google Scholar 

  • Kaswanto RL, Arifin HS, Nakagoshi N (2012) Water quality index as a simple indicator for sustainability management of rural landscape in West Java, Indonesia. Intern J Environ Prot 2(12):17–27

    Google Scholar 

  • Kumar BM (2011) Species richness and aboveground carbon stocks in the homegardens of Central Kerala, India. Agric Ecosyst Environ 140(3/4):430–440

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Landauer K, Brazil M (1990) Tropical home gardens. United Nation University Press, Tokyo, p 255

    Google Scholar 

  • Lestrelin G, Augusseau X, David D et al (2017) Collaborative landscape research in Reunion Island: using spatial modelling and simulation to support territorial foresight and urban planning. Appl Geogr 78:66–77

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mandal RA, Dutta IC, Jha PK, Karmacharya S (2013) Relationship between carbon stock and plant biodiversity in collaborative forests in Terai. ISRN Botany, Nepal

    Google Scholar 

  • Marsh R (1998) Building on traditional gardening to improve household food security. Food, Nutrition and Agriculture No. 22. Food and Agriculture Organization

    Google Scholar 

  • Méndez VE, Lok R, Somarriba E (2001) Interdisciplinary analysis of homegardens in Nicaragua: micro-zonation, plant use and socioeconomic importance. Agrofor Syst 51(2):85–96

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mitchell R, Hanstad T (2004) Small homegarden plots and sustainable livelihoods for the poor. FAO LSP Working Paper 11. Access to Natural Resources Sub-Programme. Rural Development Institue (RDI), USA, p 44

    Google Scholar 

  • Moreno-Black G, Somnasang P, Thamathawan S (1996) Cultivating continuity and creating change: women’s home garden practices in northeastern Thailand. Agric Hum Values 13(3):3–11

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Mpoyi K, Lukebakio N, Kapende K, Paulus J (1994) Inventaire de la flore domestique des parcelles d’habitation. Cas de Kinshasa (Zaire). Revue de Medecine et Pharmacopee Africaine 8(1):55–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Mulyoutami E, Rismawan R, Joshi L (2009) Local knowledge and management of simpukng (forest gardens) among the Dayak people in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. For Ecol Manag 257(10):2054–2061

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Nair PR, Nair VD, Kumar BM, Haile SG (2009) Soil carbon sequestration in tropical agroforestry systems: a feasibility appraisal. Environ Sci Policy 12(8):1099–1111

    CAS  CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Niñez V (1985) Introduction: household gardens and small-scale food production. In: Niñez V (ed) Food and nutrition bulletin. International Potato Centre (CIP), Lima

    Google Scholar 

  • Niñez V (1987) Household gardens: theoretical and policy considerations. Agric Syst 23(3):167–186

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Padoch C, de Jong W (1991) The house gardens of Santa Rosa: diversity and variability in an Amazonian agricultural system. Econ Bot 45(2):166–175

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Qian C, Sasaki N, Jourdain D, Kim SM, Shivakoti PG (2017) Local livelihood under different governances of tourism development in China—a case study of Huangshan mountain area. Tour Manag 61:221–233

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Roshetko JM, Delaney M, Hairiah K, Purnomosidhi P (2002) Carbon stocks in Indonesian homegarden systems: can smallholder systems be targeted for increased carbon storage? Am J Altern Agric 17(3):138–148

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Roshetko J, Lasco R, Angeles M (2007) Smallholder agroforestry systems for carbon storage. Mitig Adapt Strat Glob Change 12(2):219–242

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Schmidt FH, Ferguson JHA (1951) Rainfall types based on wet and dry period ratios for Indonesia and Western New Guinea. Verhandelingen Djawatan Meteorologi dan Geofisik 42, Jakarta

    Google Scholar 

  • Schultink G (2000) Critical environmental indicators: performance indices and assessment models for sustainable rural development planning. Ecol Model 130(1–3):47–58

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Soemarwoto O (1987) Homegardens: a traditional agroforestry system with promising future. In: Steppler HA, Nair PKR (eds) A decade of development. ICRAF, Nairobi, pp 157–170

    Google Scholar 

  • Soemarwoto O, Conway GR (1992) The Javanese homegarden. J Farm Syst Res Ext 2(3):95–118

    Google Scholar 

  • Ungaro F, Zasada I, Piorr A (2017) Turning points of ecological resilience: geostatistical modelling of landscape change and bird habitat provision. Landsc Urban Plan 157:297–308

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Wiersum K (2006) Diversity and change in homegarden cultivation in Indonesia. In: Kumar B, Nair P (eds) Tropical homegardens. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 13–24

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zalewski M (2000) Ecohydrology—the scientific background to use ecosystem properties as management tools toward sustainability of water resources. Ecol Eng 16:1–8

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  • Zalewski M (2014) Ecohydrology, biotechnology and engineering for cost efficiency in reaching the sustainability of biogeosphere. Ecohydrol Hydrobiol 14(1):14–20

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the following students and colleagues for discussions on issues related to landscape services: Tatag Aisyah Filqisthi, Afifa Karima, Mohammad Bagus Suryono Choliq, Muhammad Zainul Islami and Yulius Budi Prastiyo. My research in landscape services and landscape agroforestry has been supported by research grants from Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education (KEMENRISTEK-DIKTI) of Republic of Indonesia under the project entitled: Management of Landscape Agroforestry as Landscape Services Provider towards Low Carbon Society.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Regan Leonardus Kaswanto .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2017 Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

About this chapter

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Kaswanto, R.L. (2017). Management of Landscape Services for Improving Community Welfare in West Java, Indonesia. In: Hong, SK., Nakagoshi, N. (eds) Landscape Ecology for Sustainable Society. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74328-8_15

Download citation