The Action/2: The E3/EU and the United States

  • Riccardo Alcaro
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in European Union Politics book series (PSEUP)

Abstract

Intra-EU unity and transatlantic convergence on Iran’s nuclear issue were intrinsically tied. On the one hand, EU unity resulted from transatlantic convergence. France, Germany and the United Kingdom (E3) used the ‘US factor’ throughout the nuclear dispute to defend themselves from intra-EU criticisms, build support for their policy line or persuade the other member states to take difficult decisions. On the other hand, EU unity facilitated transatlantic convergence. During the Bush presidency, the E3 managed to moderate US requests for tougher action by insisting that the European Union would only support coercive measures if they were incremental, reversible and had a legal basis in Security Council resolutions. When Obama took office and steered US policy closer to EU preferences, the E3/EU could argue that EU-sanctioned coercive measures were a way to strengthen Obama’s hand in forcing Iran back to the negotiating table and fend off criticisms from America’s Middle Eastern allies and their supporters in the US Congress.

References

  1. BBC News. (2002a, February 2). Bush’s ‘evil axis’ comment stirs critics. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1796034.stm. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  2. BBC News. (2002b, February 11). Analysis: Iran and the ‘axis of evil’. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1814659.stm. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  3. Bergenäs, J. (2010). The European Union’s evolving engagement with Iran. Two steps forward, one step back. The Nonproliferation Review, 17(3), 491–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beste, R., Pauly, C., & Reiermann, C. (2007, July 20). US pressures Germany to cut Iran business ties. Der Spiegel (English edition). http://www.spiegel.de/international/business/twisting-arms-us-pressures-germany-to-cut-iran-business-ties-a-497319.html. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  5. Black, I., Hooper, J., & Burkeman, O. (2002, February 5). Bush warned over ‘axis of evil’. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2002/feb/05/usa.ianblack. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  6. Bush, G. W. (2002, January 29). The President’s State of the Union address, the United States capitol. Washington, DC. http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/01/20020129-11.html
  7. Bush, G. W. (2006, March 16). The National Security Strategy of the United States. Washington, DC. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/64884.pdf
  8. Der Spiegel. (2007, September 24). Berlin says US and France guilty of hypocrisy. http://www.spiegel.de/international/world/iran-sanctions-berlin-says-us-and-france-guilty-of-hypocrisy-a-507443.html. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  9. Douste-Blazy, P., Fischer, J., Solana, J., & Straw, J. (2005, September 22). Iran’s nuclear policy requires a collective response. The Wall Street Journal, p. A16.Google Scholar
  10. Dupont, P. E. (2009). The EU-Iran dialogue in the context of the nuclear crisis. The Review of International Affairs, XL(1135), 18–34.Google Scholar
  11. E3/EU+3. (2006, June 1). Elements of a revised proposal to Iran as approved on 1 June 2006 at the meeting in Vienna of China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the European Union. http://www.consilium.europa.eu/ueDocs/cms_Data/docs/pressdata/en/reports/90569.pdf
  12. E3/EU+3. (2008, June 14). Proposal to Iran by China, France, Germany, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, the United States of America, and the European Union presented to the Iranian authorities on 14 June 2008 in Tehran. www.bits.de/public/documents/iran/EU-proposal-iran140608.pdf
  13. Einhorn, R. J. (2004). A transatlantic strategy on Iran’s nuclear program. The Washington Quarterly, 27(4), 21–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ellner, A. (2013). British nuclear non-proliferation policies towards Iran and the Middle East. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 26(1), 225–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Emadi, R. (2008). The Czech ambassador in Iran. The Prague Journal of Central European Affairs, 10(3), 41–42.Google Scholar
  16. Fabius, L. (2016). Inside the Iran deal: A French perspective. The Washington Quarterly, 39(3), 7–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fabius, L., Hammond, P., Steinmeier, F. W., & Mogherini, F. (2015, January 21). Give diplomacy with Iran a chance. The Washington Post. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/on-irans-nuclear-programs-give-diplomacy-a-chance/2015/01/21/0cdb4dcc-a185-11e4-b146-577832eafcb4_story.htm. Accessed 6 Apr 2016.
  18. Fitzpatrick, M. (2008). The Iranian nuclear crisis. Avoid the worst-case scenario, Adelphi paper (Vol. 398). London: International Institute for Strategic Studies.Google Scholar
  19. Fletcher, M. A., & Baker, P. (2004, December 21). Bush acknowledges impact of insurgents. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A13259-2004Dec20.html. Accessed 28 Mar 2016.
  20. Gordon, P. H. (2005, March 18). Bush’s conversion on the road to Tehran. Online post, The Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2005/03/18iran-gordon
  21. Gordon, P. H. (2007, October 23). Iran sanctions and regional security. Testimony to the US house of representative committee on foreign affairs, subcommittee on the Middle East and South Asia. http://www.brookings.edu/research/testimony/2007/10/23iran
  22. Hanau Santini, R. (2010). European Union discourses and practices on the Iranian nuclear programme. European Security, 19(3), 467–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hulse, C., & Herszenhorn, D. M. (2015, September 2). Coordinated strategy brings Obama victory on Iran nuclear deal. The New York Times. http://mobile.nytimes.com/2015/09/03/world/obama-clinches-vote-to-secure-iran-nuclear-deal.html?_r=2. Accessed 6 Apr 2016.
  24. IAEA Board of Governors. (2005, September 24). Resolution GOV/2005/77.Google Scholar
  25. International Crisis Group. (2004, November 24). I ran: Where next on the nuclear standoff?Amman/Brussels: Crisis Group Middle East Briefing 15. http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/middle-eastnorth-africa/iraq-iran-gulf/iran/B015-iran-where-next-on-the-nuclearstandoff.aspx
  26. International Crisis Group. (2006, February 23). Iran: Is there a way out of the nuclear impasse? Brussels/Washington, DC/Tehran: Middle East Report 51. http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/middle-east-northafrica/iraq-iran-gulf/iran/051-iran-is-there-a-way-out-of-the-nuclearimpasse.asp
  27. Javedanfar, M. (2013 November 10). For France, Arak is a deal killer. Al Monitor. http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2013/11/iran-sanctions-relief-france-arak-water-reactor-limits.html#. Accessed 5 Apr 2016.
  28. Makinsky, M. (2009). French trade and sanctions against Iran. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 13(1), 107–122.Google Scholar
  29. McGlynn, J. (2008, April 1). The day the US declared war on Iran. Asia Times. http://www.atimes.com/atimes/Middle_East/JD01Ak01.html. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  30. Meier, O. (2013, February). European efforts to solve the conflict over Iran’s nuclear programme: How has the European Union performed? Non-proliferation papers no. 27, EU Non-Proliferation Consortium. https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/168617/EUNPC_no%2027.pdf
  31. Merkel, A. (2008, March 18). Speech by federal chancellor Angela Merkel to the Knesset in Jerusalem. https://www.knesset.gov.il/description/eng/doc/speech_merkel_2008_eng.pdf
  32. Mousavian, S. H. (2008). Iran-Europe relations. Challenges and opportunities. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Obama, B. H. (2010, May). The national security strategy of the United States. Washington, DC. https://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/rss_viewer/national_security_strategy.pdf
  34. Obama, B. H. (2014, January 28). The President’s State of the Union address, Washington, DC: United States Capitol. https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/01/28/president-barack-obamas-state-union-address
  35. Onderco, M. (2015). Money can’t buy you love: The European Union member states and Iran nuclear programme 2002–2009. European Security, 24(1), 56–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Quille, G. (2005). Prospects for a common transatlantic nuclear non-proliferation strategy. In E. Greco, G. Gasparini, & R. Alcaro (Eds.), Nuclear non-proliferation: The transatlantic debate (pp. 57–68). Rome: Istituto Affari Internazionali. http://www.iai.it/sites/default/files/quaderni_e_07.pdf
  37. Reuters. (2005a, March 11). Interview with US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. http://2001-2009.state.gov/secretary/rm/2005/43319.htm. Accessed 28 Mar 2016.
  38. Reuters. (2005b, September 12). Bush: Iran has right to civilian nuclear program.Google Scholar
  39. Reuters. (2007a, January 11). Rice offers to meet Iran if it gives up enrichment. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-nuclear-rice-idUSN1140158420070111. Accessed 1 Apr 2016.
  40. Reuters. (2007b, August 28). Only diplomacy can avert bombs in Iran now – Sarkozy. http://in.reuters.com/article/idINIndia-29176720070827?pageNumber=1. Accessed 16 Mar 2016.
  41. Reuters. (2007c, October 17). Bush: Threat of World War III if Iran goes nuclear. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-bush-idUSN1732974320071017. Accessed 11 Mar 2016.
  42. Reuters. (2008, July 19). Rice hopes Iran will change course in Geneva talks. http://www.reuters.com/article/us-iran-usa-rice-idUSN1840143720080719
  43. Rice, S. E. (2004, December 30). We need a real Iran policy. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A35655-2004Dec29.html
  44. Sanger, D. E., & Mazzetti, M. (2016, February 16). U.S. had cyberattack plan if nuclear dispute led to conflict. The New York Times. http://mobile.nytimes.com/2016/02/17/world/middleeast/us-had-cyberattack-planned-if-iran-nuclear-negotiations-failed.html?_r=1. Accessed 6 Apr 2016.
  45. Sauer, T. (2008). Struggling on the world scene: An over-committed EU versus a committed Iran. European Security, 17(2–3), 273–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wong, K. (2015, January 27). Menendez, Kirk, introduce new Iran sanctions bill. The Hill. http://thehill.com/policy/defense/230961-menendez-kirk-introduce-new-iran-sanctions-bill. Accessed 6 Apr 2016.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Riccardo Alcaro
    • 1
  1. 1.Istituto Affari InternazionaliRomeItaly

Personalised recommendations