Bifaces to the Ends of the Earth

  • Mark A. S. McMenamin
Part of the Springer Geology book series (SPRINGERGEOL)


The date of arrival of humans in the Americas is a long-standing puzzle in archaeology. A vein quartz biface from southern New England (South Hadley, Massachusetts) represents the oldest evidence for human occupation in New England, one of the last places in the United States to be colonized by Homo sapiens. The biface, which was resharpened and reused by a member of a subsequent lithic culture, is dated here to approximately 18,000 years ago, which means that pre-Clovis hunters arrived in Massachusetts just as the most recent glacial maximum was melting back to the north.


Paleoindians Clovis culture Connecticut Valley Beringia Overkill hypothesis Cartifact Geofact Projectile point Vein quartz Loess 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark A. S. McMenamin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geology and GeographyMount Holyoke CollegeSouth HadleyUSA

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