Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Perceived Risk Factors for Crowd Safety in Large Buildings

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


In large buildings or spaces used for large events, crowd safety is one of the most important concerns for facilities management. In the past decades, there have been crowd disasters in venues such as sport stadiums, concert halls, and at religious events the world over. The user of such facilities during mass gatherings can be exposed to health and safety risk, which can be mitigated by using effective risk management as a component of facilities management. A lot of emphasis is given to objective safety, but research has shown that the user’s perceived (subjective) safety is also an important factor that cannot be overlooked. This research has identified the crowds’ perceived risk factors for a selected large space facility. The paper applied confirmatory factor analysis to test the theoretical pattern of the variables loading on a developed construct to show how well these factors match reality. Twelve perceived risk factors to crowd safety have been verified.


Facilities management Risk management Crowd safety Confirmatory factor analysis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammed Alkhadim
    • 1
  • Kassim Gidado
    • 1
  • Noel Painting
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Environment and TechnologyUniversity of BrightonBrightonUK

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