Cyber Weaponry pp 185-195 | Cite as

Researching Cyber Weapons: An Enumerative Bibliography

  • Lori Fossum
Part of the Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications book series (ASTSA)


Scholarly literature about cyber weapons can be found in a number of sources, especially in college and university libraries. Articles published in the subject areas of computer science, engineering, export controls, law and military studies are also among the best sources of current analysis assuming they are peer-reviewed and substantiated with research sources. Patent applications, blog posts, and government documents may also provide researchers with valuable information about cyber weapons at various stages of the development and deployment processes. Bibliographies, whether analytic or enumerative, offer researchers a short cut to the relevant published material on the topic. This chapter presents an enumerative bibliography of sources with an overview of other methods useful in locating scholarly papers or updating the ones already found.


Enumerative bibliography Literature review Cyber weapons 


Frequently Cited or Influential Books

  1. Schmitt MN (ed) (2017) Tallinn manual 2.0 on the international law applicable to cyber operations. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  2. Tallinn 2.0, “intended as an objective restatement of the lex lata,” (p.3) follows the influential 2013 Tallinn Manual on the International Law Applicable to Cyber Warfare. Both reflect international law experts’ opinions on the current international law governing cyber operations, so neither work advances policy or the politics of any nation. Tallinn 2.0 includes 154 “black letter” rules with commentary on each and goes beyond operations conducted as part of armed conflict to address operations more broadlyGoogle Scholar
  3. Schmitt MN (ed) (2013) Tallinn manual on the international law applicable to cyber warfare: prepared by the international group of experts at the invitation of the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. “In 2009, the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (NATO CCD COE), an international military organization based in Tallinn, Estonia, and accredited in 2008 by NATO as a ‘Centre of Excellence,’ invited an independent ‘International Group of Experts’ to produce a manual on the law governing cyber warfare” (p.1). While not an official document, the Tallinn Manual was an attempt by a group of these experts to identify and address all the legal issues both in offensive and defensive operationsGoogle Scholar

Other Influential Books

  1. Allhoff F, Henschke A, Strawser BJ (eds) (2016) Binary bullets: the ethics of cyberwarfare. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Boothby WH (2014) Conflict law: the influence of new weapons technology, human rights and emerging actors. T.M.C. Asser Press, The HagueGoogle Scholar
  3. Carayannis EG, Campbell DFJ, Efthymiopoulos MP (eds) (2014) Cyber-development, cyber-democracy and cyber-defense: challenges, opportunities and implications for theory, policy and practice. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  4. Floridi L, Taddeo M (2014) The ethics of informational warfare. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  5. Green JA (ed) (2015) Cyber warfare: a multidisciplinary analysis. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Heckman KE et al (2015a) Cyber denial, deception and counter deception: a framework for supporting active cyber defense. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  7. Jajodia S et al (eds) (2015) Cyber warfare: building the scientific foundation. Springer, ChamGoogle Scholar
  8. Lemieux F (ed) (2015) Current and emerging trends in cyber operations: policy, strategy, and practice. Palgrave Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Loukas G (2015) Cyber-physical attacks: a growing invisible threat. Elsevier/Butterworth-Heinemann, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  10. Maogoto JN (2015) Technology and the law on the use of force: new security challenges in the twenty first century. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Mazanec BM (2015) The evolution of cyber war: international norms for emerging-technology weapons. Potomac Books, LincolnGoogle Scholar
  12. Ohlin JD, Govern K, Finkelstein CO (eds) (2015) Cyberwar: law and ethics for virtual conflicts. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  13. O’Leary M (2015) Cyber operations: building, defending, and attacking modern computer networks. Apress, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  14. Poindexter DF (2015) The new cyberwar: technology and the redefinition of warfare. McFarland & Company, JeffersonGoogle Scholar
  15. Richet J-L (ed) (2015) Cybersecurity policies and strategies for cyberwarfare prevention. Information Science Reference, HersheyGoogle Scholar
  16. Singer PW, Friedman A (2014) Cybersecurity and cyberwar: what everyone needs to know. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
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  18. Valeriano B, Maness RC (2015) Cyber war versus cyber realities: cyber conflict in the international system. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Zetter K (2014) Countdown to zero day: Stuxnet and the launch of the world’s first digital weapon. Crown, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Law Review/Journal Articles

      Frequently-Cited Articles

      1. Brown GD, Metcalf AO (2014) Easier said than done: legal reviews of cyber weapons. J Natl Secur Law Policy 7(1):115–138. Written from the viewpoint of military attorneys responsible for giving concrete legal advice on cyber war to commanders, the authors claim that “treating all cyber techniques as weapons is impractical” (p.116). Instead, the article proposes the assessment of cyber events in context since most do not rise to the level of an armed attackGoogle Scholar
      2. Blake D, Imburgia JS (2010) “Bloodless weapons”? The need to conduct legal reviews of certain capabilities and the implications of defining them as “weapons.”. Air Force Law Rev 66(1):157–204. Provides a relatively early, comprehensive overview of cyber weapon development’s legal considerations, pre-Tallinn Manual. Gives an overview of which legal regimes control in one’s analysisGoogle Scholar

Other Relevant Articles

  1. Allan C (2015) Targeting cyber arms dealers who directly participate in hostilities. Southwest J Int Law 21(2):341–374Google Scholar
  2. Anderson K (2016) Why the hurry to regulate autonomous weapon systems–but not cyber-weapons? Temple Int Comp Law J 30(1):17–42Google Scholar
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  4. Brecher AP (2012) Note. Cyberattacks and the covert action statute: toward a domestic legal framework for offensive cyberoperations. Mich Law Rev 111(3):423–452Google Scholar
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  7. Davis PK (2015) Deterrence, influence, cyber attack, and cyberwar. New York Univ J Int Law Polit 47(2):327–356Google Scholar
  8. Gross ML (2015) Nonlethal weapons, noncombatant immunity, and the principle of participatory liability. Case Western Reserve J Int Law 47(1):201–216Google Scholar
  9. Hakim M (2015) Defensive force against non-state actors: the state of play. Int Law Stud Ser US Naval War Coll 91:1–31Google Scholar
  10. Harrington SL (2014) Cyber security active defense: playing with fire or sound risk management? Richmond J Law Technol 20(4):1–41Google Scholar
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  12. Henriksen A (2015) Lawful state responses to low-level cyber-attacks. Nordic J Int Law 84(2):323–352Google Scholar
  13. Herr T, Rosenzweig P (2016) Cyber weapons and export control: incorporating dual use with the PrEP model. J Natl Secur Law Policy 8(2):301–320Google Scholar
  14. Hiller J (2014) Civil cyberconflict: microsoft, cybercrime, and botnets. Santa Clara High Technol Law J 31(2):163–216Google Scholar
  15. Hodgson G (2016) Cyber attack treaty verification. I/S: J Law Policy Infor Soc 12(2):231–260Google Scholar
  16. Keen JF (2015) Conventional military force as a response to cyber capabilities: on sending packets and receiving missiles. Air Force Law Rev 73:111–150Google Scholar
  17. Koh HH, Buchwald TF (2015) The crime of aggression: the United States perspective. Am J Int Law 109(2):257–295Google Scholar
  18. Kovach CM (2014) Beyond Skynet: reconciling increased autonomy in computer-based weapons systems with the laws of war. Air Force Law Rev 71:231–278Google Scholar
  19. Lilienthal G, Ahmad N (2015) Cyber-attack as inevitable kinetic war. Comput Law Secur Rev 31(3):390–400Google Scholar
  20. Lin H (2010) Offensive cyber operations and the use of force. J Natl Secur Law Policy 4(1):63–86Google Scholar
  21. Lowe TK (2015) Mapping the matrix: defining the balance between executive action and legislative regulation in the new battlefield of cyberspace. Scholar: St Mary’s Law Rev Race Soc Justice 17(1):63–94Google Scholar
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  23. McGhee J (2014) Hack, attack or whack; the politics of imprecision in cyber law. J Law Cyber Warf 4(1):13–41Google Scholar
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  25. Mele S (2014) Legal considerations on cyber-weapons and their definition. J Law Cyber Warf 3(1):52–69Google Scholar
  26. Moore A (2015) Stuxnet and article 2(4)’s prohibition against the use of force: customary law and potential models. Naval Law Rev 64:1–26Google Scholar
  27. O’Connell ME (2015) 21st century arms control challenges: drones, cyber weapons, killer robots, and WMDs. Glob Stud Law Rev 13(3):515–534Google Scholar
  28. Richardson JC (2011) Stuxnet as cyberwarfare: applying the law of war to the virtual battlefield. John Marshall J Comput Infor Law 29(1):1–28Google Scholar
  29. Richmond J (2011) Evolving battlefields: does Stuxnet demonstrate a need for modifications to the law of armed conflict? Fordham Int Law J 35(3):842–894Google Scholar
  30. Schmitt MN (2015a) The law of cyber targeting. Naval War Coll Rev 68(2):11–29Google Scholar
  31. Schmitt MN (2015b) The notion of ‘objects’ during cyber operations: a riposte in defence of interpretive and applicative precision. Israel Law Rev 48(1):81–109Google Scholar
  32. Singer PW (2015) Stuxnet and its hidden lessons on the ethics of cyberweapons. Case Western Reserve J Int Law 47(1):79–86Google Scholar
  33. Sullivan C (2016) The 2014 Sony hack and the role of international law. J Natl Secur Law Policy 8(3):437–468Google Scholar
  34. Trautman L (2016) Congressional cybersecurity oversight: who’s who and how it works. J Law Cyber Warf 5(1):147–306Google Scholar
  35. Walker P (2013) Organizing for cyberspace operations: selected issues. Int Law Stud 89:341–361Google Scholar
  36. Waxman MC (2013) Self-defensive force against cyber attacks: legal, strategic and political dimensions. Int Law Stud 89:109–122Google Scholar
  37. Non-law Articles and Book Chapters

      Frequently-Cited Article

      1. Lin H (2009) Lifting the veil on cyber offense. IEEE Secur Priv 7(4):15–21. Based on a 2009 National Research Council report, “Technology, Policy, Law, and Ethics Regarding US Acquisition and Use of Cyberattack Capabilities,” this article highlights the lack of information about US offensive capabilities and the uncertainty surrounding offensive cyberattacks as instruments of US policyGoogle Scholar

Other Relevant Articles and Chapters

  1. Almeshekah MH, Spafford EH (2014) Using deceptive information in computer security defenses. Int J Cyber Warf Terrorism 4(3):63–80Google Scholar
  2. Bartos CA (2016) Cyber weapons are not created equal. U.S Naval Inst Proc 142(6):30–33Google Scholar
  3. Barzashka I (2013) Are cyber-weapons effective? Assessing Stuxnet’s impact on the Iranian enrichment programme. RUSI J: R United Serv Inst Defence Stud 158(2):48–56Google Scholar
  4. Bencsáth B et al (2012) The cousins of Stuxnet: Duqu, flame, and gauss. Futur Internet 4(4):971–1003Google Scholar
  5. Bergin DL (2015) Cyber-attack and defense simulation framework. J Defense Model Simul: Appl Methodol Technol 12(4):383–392Google Scholar
  6. Boothby B (2016) Cyber weapons: oxymoron or a real world phenomenon to be regulated? In: Friis K, Ringmose J (eds) Conflict in cyber space: theoretical, strategic and legal perspectives. Routledge, New York, pp 165–174Google Scholar
  7. Butrimas V (2014) National security and international policy challenges in a post Stuxnet world. Lithuanian Annu Strateg Rev 12(1):11–31Google Scholar
  8. Czosseck C, Podins K (2012) A vulnerability-based model of cyber weapons and its implications for cyber conflict. Int J Cyber Warf Terrorism 2(1):14–26Google Scholar
  9. Denning DE (2012) Stuxnet: what has changed? Futur Internet 4(3):672–687Google Scholar
  10. Droege C (2013) Get off my cloud: cyber warfare, international humanitarian law, and the protection of civilians. Int Rev Red Cross 94(886):533–578Google Scholar
  11. Farwell JP, Rohozinski R (2011) Stuxnet and the future of cyber war. Survival: Glob Politics Strategy 53(1):23–40Google Scholar
  12. Flowers A, Zeadally S (2014) US policy on active cyber defense. J Homeland Secur Emerg Manag 11(2):289–308Google Scholar
  13. Gartzke E, Lindsay JR (2015) Weaving tangled webs: offense, defense, and deception in cyberspace. Secur Stud 24(2):316–348Google Scholar
  14. Geers K (2010a) The challenge of cyber attack deterrence. Comput Law Secur Rev 26(3):298–303Google Scholar
  15. Geers K (2010b) Cyber weapons convention. Comput Law Secur Rev 26(5):547–551Google Scholar
  16. Gjelten T (2013) First strike: US cyber warriors seize the offensive. World Aff 175(5):33–43Google Scholar
  17. Grant TJ (2013) Tools and technologies for professional offensive cyber operations. Int J Cyber Warf Terrorism 3(3):49–71Google Scholar
  18. Heckman KE, Stech FJ, Schmoker BS, Thomas RK (2015b) Denial and deception in cyber defense. Computer 48(4):36–44Google Scholar
  19. Iasiello E (2014) Hacking back: not the right solution. Parameters 44(3):105–113Google Scholar
  20. Jang-Jaccard J, Nepal S (2014) A survey of emerging threats in cybersecurity. J Comput Syst Sci 80(5):973–993Google Scholar
  21. Jenkins R (2013) Is Stuxnet physical? Does it matter? J Mil Ethics 12(1):68–79Google Scholar
  22. Kello L (2013) The meaning of the cyber revolution perils to theory and statecraft. Int Secur 38(2):7–40Google Scholar
  23. Kelly D et al (2012) Exploring extant and emerging issues in anonymous networks: a taxonomy and survey of protocols and metrics. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 14(2):579–606Google Scholar
  24. Kenney M (2015) Cyber-terrorism in a post-Stuxnet world. Orbis 59(1):111–128Google Scholar
  25. Lachow I (2011) The Stuxnet enigma: implications for the future of cybersecurity. Georgetown J Int Aff 12:118–126Google Scholar
  26. Lewis JA (2012) In defense of Stuxnet. Mil Strateg Aff 4(3):65–76Google Scholar
  27. Lindsay JR (2013) Stuxnet and the limits of cyber warfare. Secur Stud 22(3):365–404Google Scholar
  28. Lucas GR Jr (2014) Ethics and cyber conflict: a response to JME 12:1 2013. J Mil Ethics 13(1):20–31Google Scholar
  29. Lupovici A (2016) The “attribution problem” and the social construction of “violence”: taking cyber deterrence literature a step forward. Int Stud Perspect 17(3):322–342Google Scholar
  30. Maitra AK (2015) Offensive cyber-weapons: technical, legal, and strategic aspects. Environ Syst Decis 35(1):169–182Google Scholar
  31. Peterson D (2013) Offensive cyber weapons: construction, development, and employment. J Strateg Stud 36(1):120–124Google Scholar
  32. Rid T, McBurney P (2012) Cyber-weapons. RUSI J 157(1):6–13Google Scholar
  33. Rowland J, Rice M, Shenoi S (2014) The anatomy of a cyber power. Int J Crit Infrastruct Prot 7(1):3–11Google Scholar
  34. Rustici RM (2011) Cyberweapons: leveling the international playing field. Parameters 41(3):32–42Google Scholar
  35. Stevens T (2016) Cyberweapons: an emerging global governance architecture. Palgrave Commun 2:160102. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tripathi S et al (2013) Hadoop based defense solution to handle distributed denial of service DDoS attacks. J Inf Secur 4(3):150–164Google Scholar
  37. Gray Literature

      Frequently-Cited Report

      1. Mandiant (Firm) (2013) APT1: exposing one of China’s cyber espionage units. Mandiant, Alexandria. Security firm Mandiant, now a Fireeye company, issued this report after extensive research, concluding APT1 is likely sponsored by China and has been implicated in wide-ranging cyber espionage operations since 2006Google Scholar

    Other Relevant Reports

    1. Bilge L, Dumitras T (2012) Before we knew it: an empirical study of zero-day attacks in the real world. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM conference on computer and communications security. pp 833–844Google Scholar
    2. Black K, David M (2016) War in 1s and 0s: framing the lexicon for the digital age. Proceedings of the 11th international conference on cyber warfare and security. pp 31–36Google Scholar
    3. Caballero J, Grier C, Kreibich C, Paxson V (2011) Measuring pay-per-install: the commoditization of malware distribution. USENIX security symposium. pp 1–15Google Scholar
    4. Center for Cyber and Homeland Security (2016) Into the gray zone: the private sector and active defense against cyber threats. George Washington University, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
    5. Chen J, Duvall G (2016) On dynamic cyber defense and its improvement. In: Proceedings of the 11th international conference on cyber warfare and security. pp 74–80Google Scholar
    6. Colbaugh R, Glass K (2012) Proactive defense for evolving cyber threats. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque/LivermoreGoogle Scholar
    7. Conklin C, Bahney BW (2012) More than meets the eye: clandestine funding, cutting-edge technology and China’s cyber research & development program. Lawrence Livermore National LaboratoryGoogle Scholar
    8. De Falco M (2012) Stuxnet facts report. A technical and strategic analysis. NATO CCD COE Publications, TallinnGoogle Scholar
    9. Giles K, Hartmann K (2015) Cyber defense: an international view. Strategic Studies Institute and US Army War College Press, CarlisleGoogle Scholar
    10. Herr T (2014) PrEP: a framework for malware and cyber weapons. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Cyber Warfare and Security ICCWS-2014. pp 84–91Google Scholar
    11. Hershey PC, Dehnert RE Jr, Williams JJ, Raytheon (2017) Digital weapons factory and digital operations center for producing, deploying, assessing, and managing digital defects. Patent no. 9,544,326, USAGoogle Scholar
    12. Huntley WL (2016, January) Strategic implications of offense and defense in cyberwar. 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences HICSS. pp 5588–5595Google Scholar
    13. Kaspersky Lab, Global Research & Analysis Team (2017) Lazarus under the hood. 59 ppGoogle Scholar
    14. Leed M, Lewis JA, McCreary JD (2013) Offensive cyber capabilities at the operational level: the way ahead. Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
    15. Li JJ, Daugherty L, National Defense Research Institute US (2015) Training cyber warriors: what can be learned from defense language training? RAND, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
    16. Libicki MC, Ablon L, Webb T (2015) Defender’s dilemma. RAND, Santa MonicaGoogle Scholar
    17. National Research Council (2010) Proceedings of a workshop on deterring cyberattacks: informing strategies and developing options for US policy. National Academies Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
    18. Rattray G, Healey J (2010) Categorizing and understanding offensive capabilities and their use. In: Proceedings of a workshop on deterring cyberattacks: informing strategies and developing options for US policy. pp 77–97Google Scholar
    19. Shakarian P (2017) The enemy has a voice: understanding threats to inform smart investment in cyber defense. New America Foundation, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
    20. Tyugu E (2012) Command and control of cyber weapons. 2012 4th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, CYCON 2012 – ProceedingsGoogle Scholar
    21. Wassenaar Arrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual–Use Goods and Technologies (2017) Public documents volume II: list of dual-use goods and technologies and munitions list. pp 1–234Google Scholar
    22. Zhioua, S. 2013. The Middle East under malware attack dissecting cyber weapons. Proceedings – International conference on distributed computing systems pp. 11–16.Google Scholar

Government Documents

    Frequently-Cited Government Documents

    1. United States (2015a) Chapter XVI cyber operations. In: Department of defense law of war manual. General Counsel of the Department of Defense, Washington, DC. The Manual represents the position of the Department of Defense, not necessarily the US government as a whole. Chapter XVI, “Cyber Operations,” comprises only 15 pages of the 1,220–page-long Manual but provides more transparency about the Department of Defense’s cyber operations generally. Some of the Manual’s positions on international law differ from those seen in the Tallinn Manual Google Scholar
    2. United States Air Force (2011) Air Force Instruction 51-402, Legal Reviews of Weapons and Cyber Capabilities. The instruction was issued to reflect “a change in the Air Force definition of ‘weapon’ and requires a legal review of cyber capabilities intended for use in cyberspace operations” (p.1)Google Scholar

Other Relevant Government Documents

  1. Canada (2010) Canada’s cyber security strategyGoogle Scholar
  2. Government Accountability Office, Washington DC, Belkin P (2014) NATO’s Wales summit: expected outcomes and key challengesGoogle Scholar
  3. Los Alamos National Laboratory & United States (2015) What is the current state of the science of cyber defense? United States. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  4. Ministry of Defence (2016) The cyber primer, 2nd edn. Ministry of Defence, LondonGoogle Scholar
  5. Russian Federation (2011) Conceptual views regarding the activities of the armed forces of the Russian Federation in information spaceGoogle Scholar
  6. Sandia National Laboratories & United States (2015) Evaluating moving target defense with PLADD. United States. Dept. of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  7. United Kingdom (2010) A strong Britain in an age of uncertainty: the national security strategyGoogle Scholar
  8. United Kingdom (2011) The UK cyber security strategy: protecting and promoting the UK in a digitized worldGoogle Scholar
  9. United States (2011) Strategy for operating in cyberspace. Department of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. United States (2010) The White House. National security strategyGoogle Scholar
  11. United States (2013) Joint publication 3–12 on cyberspace operations. Department of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  12. United States (2014) Army techniques publication 3–36 (FM3–36). Electronic warfare techniques.Google Scholar
  13. United States (2015b) Defense cybersecurity: opportunities exist for DOD to share cybersecurity resources with small businesses. United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  14. United States (2015c) Defense infrastructure: Improvements in DOD reporting and cybersecurity implementation needed to enhance utility resilience planning. United States Government Accountability Office, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  15. United States (2015d) The department of defense cyber strategy. Department of Defense, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  16. United States (2017) Army field manual 3–12, Cyberspace and electronic warfare operationsGoogle Scholar
  17. US Strategic Command (2009) The cyber warfare lexicon: a language to support the development, testing, planning and employment of cyber weapons and other modern warfare capabilities. Version 1.7.6Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.George Washington University Law SchoolWashington, DCUSA

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