ICCS regards civic knowledge as fundamental to effective civic participation. Within the context of ICCS, civic knowledge refers not only to familiarity with the civic and citizenship content described in the ICCS 2016 assessment framework but also to the ability to apply relevant cognitive processes to this content (Schulz, Ainley, Fraillon, Losito, & Agrusti, 2016). Civic knowledge is important in all four of the framework’s content domains.
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Schulz, W., Ainley, J., Fraillon, J., Losito, B., Agrusti, G., Friedman, T. (2018). Students’ civic knowledge. In: Becoming Citizens in a Changing World. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73963-2_3
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