The Leading Role of Software and Systems Architecture in the Age of Digitization

  • Manfred Broy
Open Access


The design, specification, and correct implementation of software and systems architecture are, after the task of requirements specification, perhaps the most important design decisions when building large software or software-intensive systems. Architectures are responsible for software quality, for a number of quality attributes such as maintainability, portability, changeability, reusability, and deployability, but also reliability, security, and safety. Therefore, the design of architectures is a key issue in system and software development. For highly distributed, networked systems and for cyber-physical systems, we need a design and specification concept which supports composition, parallelism, and concurrency and finally real time but keeps all of the general advantages of object-oriented programming. This requires an appropriate concept of interface. If it is extended to these more sophisticated properties, it covers also functional quality aspects.


Specification Design Contracts Assumptions Commitments System specification Interface Architecture 


  1. 1.
    Andreessen, M.: Why Software Is Eating The World.
  2. 2.
    Geisberger, E., Broy, M.: agendaCPS – Integrierte Forschungsagenda Cyber-Physical Systems (acatech STUDIE). Springer, Heidelberg (2012)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Broy, M.: Multifunctional software systems: structured modeling and specification of functional requirements. Sci. Comput. Program. 75, 1193–1214 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Neubeck, P.: A probabilistic theory of interactive systems. Dissertation, Technische Universität München (2012)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Broy, M.: A logical basis for component-oriented software and systems engineering. Comput. J. 53(10), 1758–1782 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Broy, M.: A logical approach to systems engineering artifacts: semantic relationships and dependencies beyond traceability—from requirements to functional and architectural views. Softw. Syst. Model. (2017)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Broy, M.: Interaction and realizability, In: van Leeuwen, J., Italiona, G.F., van der Hoek, W., Meinel, C., Sack, H., Plasil, F. (eds.) SOFSEM 2007: Theory and Practice of Computer Science, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 4362, pp. 29–50. Springer (2007)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Broy, M.: Theory and methodology of assumption/commitment based system interface specification and architectural contracts. Formal Methods Syst. Design 52(1), 33–87 (2018)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Herzberg, D., Broy, M.: Modeling layered distributed communication systems. Form. Asp. Comput. 17(1), 1–18 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Szyperski, C.: Component Software: Beyond Object-Oriented Programming, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley Professional (2002)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Broy, M.: System behaviour models with discrete and dense time. In: Chakraborty, S., Eberspächer, J. (eds.) Advances in Real-Time Systems, pp. 3–25. Springer, Berlin (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Clements, P., Bachmann, F., Bass, L., Garlan, D., Ivers, J., Little, R., Merson, P., Nord, R., Stafford, J.: Documenting Software Architectures: Views and Beyond, 2nd edn. Addison-Wesley, Boston (2010)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Broy, M., Stølen, K.: Specification and Development of Interactive Systems: Focus on Streams, Interfaces, and Refinement. Springer (2001)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Derler, P., Lee, E.A., Tripakis, S., Törngren, M.: Cyber-physical system design contracts. In: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE 4th International Conference on Cyber-Physical Systems (ICCPS ’13), pp. 109–118. ACM, New York, NY (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Soderberg, A., Vedder, B.: Composable safety-critical systems based on pre-certified software components. In: 2012 IEEE 23rd International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering Workshops (ISSREW), pp. 343–348 (2012)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tripakis, S., Lickly, B., Henzinger, T.A., Lee, E.A.: A theory of synchronous relational interfaces. ACM Trans. Program. Lang. Syst. 33(4), 14:1–14:41 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Westmann, J.: Specifying safety-critical heterogeneous systems using contracts theory. KTH, Industrial Engineering and Management. Doctoral Thesis Stockholm, Sweden 2016Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Broy, M., Krüger, I., Meisinger, M.: A formal model of services. TOSEM – ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol. 16, (2007)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Broy, M.: Rethinking non-functional software requirements. Computer. 48(5), 96–99 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Broy, M.: Computability and realizability for interactive computations. Inf. Comput. 241, 277–301 (2015)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Henzinger, Th.A., Qadeer, S., Rajamani, S.K..: Decomposing refinement proofs using assume-guarantee reasoning. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Design (ICCAD), IEEE Computer Society Press, pp. 245–252 (2000).
  22. 22.
    Meyer, B.: Applying “design by contract”. In Computer (IEEE), 25, 10, October 1992, pp. 40–51Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, A., Damm, W., Passerone, R.: Taming Dr. Frankenstein: contract-based design for cyber-physical systems. Eur. J. Control. 18(3), 217–238 (2012)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. Toerngren, S. Tripakis, P. Derler, E.A. Lee: Design contracts for cyber-physical systems: making timing assumptions explicit. Technical Report UCB/EECS- 2012-191, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley (2012)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Open Access This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.

The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Informatik, Technische Universität MünchenMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations