Skip to main content

Mapping ICS Materials: Interactive, Connected, and Smart Materials

  • Conference paper
  • First Online:
Intelligent Human Systems Integration (IHSI 2018)


In the last years, new classes of advanced materials are emerging, influenced by computing, Internet of Things, and hybridization of design with science. These materials are overpassing conventional smart materials, by presenting additional degrees of intelligence. These are ICS Materials, an acronym for Interactive, Connected, and Smart Materials. While research centers around the world are experimenting with these new materials, there is the need to reflect on their definition, develop a classification, and identify constraints, potentials, and their impact on design. This paper is a step in this direction and provides the initial results of a basic research project focused on studying ICS Materials. In this paper, we provide the theoretical foundations and present a tentative map for them. This map is the result of an ongoing process of analysis of about one hundred best examples and practices. In conclusion, emerging issues and questions arisen from this study are presented.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 259.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 329.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. Cardillo, M., Ferrara, M.: Materiali intelligenti, sensibili, interattivi. Materiali per il design: 2. Lupetti, Milano (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  2. Antonelli, P.: Design and the Elastic Mind. Museum of Modern Art, New York (2008)

    Google Scholar 

  3. Myers, W.: Bio Design: Nature Science Creativity. Thames & Hudson Ltd, London (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  4. Buchanan, R.: Design Research and the New Learning. Des. Issues 17, 3–23 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Stoppa, M., Chiolerio, A.: Wearable electronics and smart textiles: a critical review. Sensors 14, 11957–11992 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Addington, M., Schodek, D.: Smart Materials and New Technologies. For Architecture and Design Professions. Architectural Press-Elsevier, Oxford (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  7. Saffer, D.: Designing for Interaction: Creating Innovative Applications and Devices. New Riders Pub, Berkeley (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  8. Valentina, R., Marinella, F., Venanzio, A.: ICS_Materials: materiali interattivi, connessi e smart. MD J. 2, 44–57 (2017)

    Google Scholar 

  9. Coelho, M., Hall, L., Berzowska, J., Maes, P.: Pulp-based computing: a framework for building computers out of paper. Presented at the CHI 2009, Boston, MA, USA, 4 April (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  10. Razzaque, M.A., Dobson, S., Delaney, K.: Augmented materials: spatially embodied sensor networks. Int. J. Commun. Netw. Distrib. Syst. 11, 453–477 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Vallgårda, A., Sokoler, T.: A material strategy: exploring material properties of computers. Int. J. Design 4(3), 1–14 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  12. Yao, L., Ou, J., Cheng, C.-Y., Steiner, H., Wang, W., Wang, G., Ishii, H.: bioLogic: natto cells as nanoactuators for shape changing interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 1–10. ACM, New York (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  13. Kao, H.-L. (Cindy), Holz, C., Roseway, A., Calvo, A., Schmandt, C.: DuoSkin: rapidly prototyping on-skin user interfaces using skin-friendly materials. In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM International Symposium on Wearable Computers, pp. 16–23. ACM, New York (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  14. Warneke, B., Last, M., Liebowitz, B., Pister, K.S.J.: Smart dust: communicating with a cubic-millimeter computer. Computer 34, 44–51 (2001)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Karana, E., Pedgley, O., Rognoli, V.: On materials experience. Des. Issues 31, 16–27 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Bekas, D.G., Tsirka, K., Baltzis, D., Paipetis, A.S.: Self-healing materials: a review of advances in materials, evaluation, characterization and monitoring techniques. Compos. Part B Eng. 87, 92–119 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Ferrara, M., Bengisu, M.: Materials that Change Color: Smart Materials, Intelligent Design. Springer, Heidelberg (2013)

    Google Scholar 

  18. Ishii, H., Lakatos, D., Bonanni, L., Labrune, J.-B.: Radical atoms: beyond tangible bits. Toward Transform. Mater. Interact. 19, 38–51 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  19. Bergström, J., Clark, B., Frigo, A., Mazé, R., Redström, J., Vallgårda, A.: Becoming materials: material forms and forms of practice. Digit. Creat. 21, 155–172 (2010)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Vallgårda, A., Boer, L., Tsaknaki, V., Svanaes, D.: Material programming: a new interaction design practice. In: Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems, pp. 149–152. ACM, New York (2016)

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Stefano Parisi .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 Springer International Publishing AG

About this paper

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this paper

Parisi, S. et al. (2018). Mapping ICS Materials: Interactive, Connected, and Smart Materials. In: Karwowski, W., Ahram, T. (eds) Intelligent Human Systems Integration. IHSI 2018. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol 722. Springer, Cham.

Download citation

  • DOI:

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-73887-1

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-73888-8

  • eBook Packages: EngineeringEngineering (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics