Advertisement

Stress and Nutrition During Pregnancy: Factors Defining Transgenerational Future Health Within the Family

  • Tania Romo-González
  • Raquel González-Ochoa
  • Rosalba León-Díaz
  • Gabriel Gutiérrez-Ospina
Chapter
Part of the The Anthropocene: Politik—Economics—Society—Science book series (APESS, volume 23)

Abstract

A normal pregnancy is defined as the physiological state of a woman from fertilization to the birth of one or more living, healthy and full-term infants. Meanwhile, the term high-risk pregnancy refers to anomalous gestational conditions (e.g. eclampsia), which increase the possibility of pathophysiological states in the mother and/or the infant. There are several biological, gynaeco-obstetric and social risk factors for a high risk pregnancy. Conditions such as malnutrition, negative emotions, perceived stress and maternal anxiety are predictors of pathological conditions in both mother and child (e.g. obesity, diabetes, different types of cancer and some neurological and cardiovascular pathology). This scenario requires a modification of the concept of ‘high-risk pregnancy’, and advocates taking into account the monitoring of stress, anxiety, depression and food quality during pregnancy as potential risk factors not only for the baby, but also for subsequent generations.

Keywords

Pregnancy Distress Malnutrition Negative emotions Transgenerational health 

References

  1. Aguilar-Moreno, V., Muñoz-Soto, R., Velasco-Vite, J., Cabezas-García, E., Ibargüengoitia-Ochoa, F., Nuñez-Urquiza, R.M., et al. (2001). Control prenatal con enfoque de riesgo.Una herramienta indispensable para el médico general. Práctica Médica Efectiva, 3(9), 1–4.Google Scholar
  2. Arck, P., Hansen, P.J., Mulac Jericevic, B., Piccinni, M.P., Szekeres-Bartho, J. (2007). Progesterone during pregnancy: endocrine-immune cross talk in mammalian species and the role of stress. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 58(3), 268–279 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0897.2007.00512.x.
  3. Barker, D.J.P. (1995). The fetal and infant origins of disease. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 25(7), 457–463.Google Scholar
  4. Bastani, F., Hidarnia, A., Kazemnejad, A., Vafaei, M., Kashanian, M. (2005). A randomized controlled trial of the effects of applied relaxation training on reducing anxiety and perceived stress in pregnant women. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 50(4), e36–40 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmwh.2004.11.008.
  5. Bayol, S.A., Farrington, S.J., Stickland, N.C. (2007). A maternal ‘junk food’ diet in pregnancy and lactation promotes an exacerbated taste for ‘junk food’ and a greater propensity for obesity in rat offspring. British Journal of Nutrition, 98(4), 843–851(2007).  https://doi.org/10.1017/s0007114507812037.
  6. Bilbo, S.D. & Schwarz, J.M. (2012). The immune system and developmental programming of brain and behaviour. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 33(3), 267–286 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2012.08.006.
  7. Blewitt, M.E., Vickaryous, N.K., Paldi, A., Koseki, H., Whitelaw, E. (2006). Dynamic reprogramming of DNA methylation at an epigenetically sensitive allele in mice. Plos Genetics, 2(4), e49 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.0020049.
  8. Bouret, S.G. (2009). Early life origins of obesity: role of hypothalamic programming. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology & Nutrition, 48(Suppl 1), S31–38 (2009). https://journals.lww.com/jpgn/Abstract/2009/03001/Early_Life_Origins_of_Obesity__Role_of.6.aspx.
  9. Bresnahan, M., Schaefer, C.A., Brown, A.S., Susser, E.S. (2005). Prenatal determinants of schizophrenia: what we have learned thus far? Epidemiology e Psichiatria Sociale, 14(4), 194–197.Google Scholar
  10. Brown, A.S., Begg, M.D., Gravenstein, S., Schaefer, C.A., Wyatt, R.J., Bresnahan, M., et al. (2004). Serologic evidence of prenatal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(8), 774–780 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.8.774.
  11. Brown, S. A., Rogers, L. K., Dunn, J. K., Gotto, A. M. Jr., Patsch, W. (1990). Development of cholesterol homeostatic memory in the rat is influenced by maternal diets. Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, 39(5), 468–473.Google Scholar
  12. Buss, C., Davis, E.P., Shahbaba, B., Pruessner, J.C., Head, K., Sandman, C.A. (2012). Maternal cortisol over the course of pregnancy and subsequent child amygdala and hippocampus volumes and affective problems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of United States of America, 109(20), E1312–E1319 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1201295109.
  13. Castro-Santoro, R. (2011). Discurso del Representante de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. http://www.omm.org.mx/index.php/lanzamiento-del-observatorio?id=155. Accessed 10 Jun 2014.
  14. Clarke, A.S., Wittwer, D.J., Abbott, D.H., Schneider, M.L. (1994). Long-term effects of prenatal stress on HPA axis activity in juvenile rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 27(5), 257–269 (1994).  https://doi.org/10.1002/dev.420270502.
  15. Copper, R.L., Goldenberg, R.L., Das, A., Elder, N., Swain, M., Norman, G., et al. (1996). The preterm prediction study: maternal stress is associated with spontaneous preterm birth at less than thirty-five weeks’ gestation. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 175(5), 1286–1292.Google Scholar
  16. Cortez-Chavez, J.A. (2006). Diez principales causas de alto riesgo en el Hospital General de zona no. 1 de la ciudad de Colima en el año 2004. (Tesis no publicada, Especialidad en Medicina Familiar). Colima: University of Colima.Google Scholar
  17. Crudo, A., Suderman, M., Moisiadis, V.G., Petropoulos, S., Kostaki, A., Hallett, M., et al. (2013). Glucocorticoid programming of the fetal male hippocampal epigenome. Endocrinology, 154(3), 1168–1180 (2013).  https://doi.org/10.1210/en.2012-1980.
  18. Challis, J.R.G. (2000). Mechanism of parturition and preterm labor. Obstetrica & Gynecological Survey, 55(10), 650–660.Google Scholar
  19. Chechi, K., & Cheema, S.K. (2006). Maternal diet rich in saturated fats has deleterious effects on plasma lipids of mice. Experimental & Clinical Cardiology, 11(2), 129–135.Google Scholar
  20. Chrousos, G.P., Torpy, D.J., Gold, P.W. (1998). Interactions between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the female reproductive system: clinical implications. Annals of Internal Medicine, 129(3), 229–240.Google Scholar
  21. Darnton-Hill, I. (2013). Asesoramiento sobre nutrición durante el embarazo. Fundamento biológico, conductual y contextual. http://www.who.int/elena/titles/bbc/nutrition_counselling_pregnancy/es/. Accessed 5 Apr 2014.
  22. de Weerth, C., van Hees, Y., Buitelaar, J.K. (2003). Prenatal maternal cortisol levels and infant behaviour during the first 5 months. Early Human Development, 74(2), 139–151.Google Scholar
  23. Diego, M.A., Jones, N.A., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C., et al. (2006). Maternal psychological distress, prenatal cortisol, and fetal weight. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68(5), 747–753 (2006). https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006842-200609000-00015.
  24. DiPietro, J.A., Ghera, M.M., Costigan, K., Hawkins, M. (2004). Measuring the ups and downs of pregnancy stress. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 25(3–4), 189–201.Google Scholar
  25. DiPietro, J.A., Hilton, S.C., Hawkins, M., Costigan, K.A., Pressman, E.K. (2002). Maternal stress and affect influence fetal neurobehavioral development. Developmental Psychology, 38(5), 659–668.Google Scholar
  26. DiPietro, J.A., Hodgson, D.M., Costigan, K.A., Hilton, S.C., Johnson, T.R.B. (1996). Fetal Neurobehavioral Development. Child Development, 67(5), 2553–2567.Google Scholar
  27. Drake, A.J., Liu, L., Kerrigan, D., Meehan, R.R., Seckl, J.R. (2011). Multigenerational programming in the glucocorticoid programmed rat is associated with generation-specific and parent of origin effects. Epigenetics, 6(11), 1334–1343 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.4161/epi.6.11.17942.
  28. Ellman, L.M., & Susser, E.S. (2009). The promise of epidemiologic studies: neuroimmune mechanisms in the etiologies of brain disorders. Neuron, 64(1), 25–27 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2009.09.024.
  29. Field, T., & Diego, M. (2008). Cortisol: the culprit prenatal stress variable. International Journal of Neuroscience, 118(8), 1181(2008).  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207450701820944.
  30. Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M., Vera, Y., Gil, K., Schanberg, S., et al. (2004). Prenatal maternal biochemistry predicts neonatal biochemistry. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114(8), 933–945.Google Scholar
  31. Friebe, A., & Arck, P. (2008). Causes for spontaneous abortion: what the bugs ‘gut’ to do with it? The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology, 40(11), 2348–2352 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocel.2008.04.019.
  32. Frye, C.A., Paris, J.J., Osborne, D.M., Campbell, J.C., Kippin, T.E. (2011). Prenatal Stress Alters Progestogens to Mediate Susceptibility to Sex-Typical, Stress-Sensitive Disorders, such as Drug Abuse: A Review. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 17(2), 52 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00052.
  33. Gabory, A., Ripoche, M.A., Le Digarcher, A., Watrin, F., Ziyyat, A., Forne, T., et al. (2009). H19 acts as a trans regulator of the imprinted gene network controlling growth in mice. Development, 136(20), 3413–3421(2009).  https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.036061.
  34. Geara, A.S., Azzi, J., Jurewicz, M., Abdi, R. (2009). The renin-angiotensin system: an old, newly discovered player in immunoregulation. Transplantation Reviews, 23(3), 151–158 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trre.2009.04.002.
  35. Grandia, C., González, M. A., Naddeo, S., Basualdo, M.N., Salgado, M.P. (2008). Relación entre estrés psciosocial y parto prematuro. Una investigación interdisciplinaria en el área urbana de Buenos Aires. Revista del Hospital Materno Infantil Ramón Sarda, 27(2), 51–69. http://www.redalyc.org/articulo.oa?id=91227202. Accessed 29 May 2014.
  36. Guía de Práctica clínica para el Control Prenatal con enfoque de Riesgo. (2008). México: Secretaría de Salud. http://www.cenetec.salud.gob.mx/descargas/gpc/CatalogoMaestro/028_GPC__PrenatalRiesgo/IMSS_028_08_EyR.pdf. Accessed 7 Jan 2014.
  37. Guo, F., & Jen, K.L. (1995). High-fat feeding during pregnancy and lactation affects offspring metabolism in rats. Physiology & Behavaior, 57(4), 681–686.Google Scholar
  38. Guyton, A.C., & Hall, J.E. (2005). Embarazo y Lactancia. In A.C. Guyton, & J.E Hall (Eds.). Tratado de Fisiología Médica (10 ed.): España: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  39. Harville, E.W., Savitz, D.A., Dole, N., Herring, A.H., Thorp, J.M. (2009). Stress questionnaires and stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Journal of Women’s Health, 18(9), 1425–1433.Google Scholar
  40. Hompes, T., Vrieze, E., Fieuws, S., Simons, A., Jaspers, L., Van Bussel, J., et al. (2012). The influence of maternal cortisol and emotional state during pregnancy on fetal intrauterine growth. Pediatric Research, 72(3), 305–315 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1038/pr.2012.70.
  41. Huizink, A.C., Mulder, E.J., Buitelaar, J.K. (2004). Prenatal stress and risk for psychopathology: specific effects or induction of general susceptibility? Psychological Bulletin, 130, 115–142 (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.1.115.
  42. Hultman, C.M., Ohman, A., Cnattingius, S., Wieselgren, I. M., Lindstrom, L. H. (1997). Prenatal and neonatal risk factors for schizophrenia. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 170, 128–133.Google Scholar
  43. Kelley, A.E., Schiltz, C.A., Landry, C.F. (2005). Neural systems recruited by drug- and food-related cues: Studies of gene activation in corticolimbic regions. Physiology & Behavior, 86 (1–2), 11–14 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2005.06.018.
  44. Kiyohara, C., & Yoshimasu, K. (2009). Molecular epidemiology of major depressive disorder. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 14(2), 71–87 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12199-008-0073-6.
  45. Langley-Evans, S.C. (2006). Developmental programming of health and disease. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 65, 97–105.Google Scholar
  46. Lelievre, S.A. (2009). Contributions of extracellular matrix signaling and tissue architecture to nuclear mechanisms and spatial organization of gene expression control. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects, 1790(9), 925–935 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2009.03.013.
  47. Levin, B.E. (2006). Metabolic imprinting: critical impact of the perinatal environment on the regulation of energy homeostasis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 361(1471), 1107–1121(2006).  https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2006.1851.
  48. Levin, B.E. (2009). Synergy of nature and nurture in the development of childhood obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 33(Suppl 1), S53–56 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2009.18.
  49. Marcus, S.M., Flynn, H.A., Blow, F.C., Barry, K.L. (2003). Depressive symptoms among pregnant women screened in obstetrics settings. Journal of Women’s Health, 12(4), 373–380 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1089/154099903765448880.
  50. Martin-Gronert, M.S., & Ozanne, S.E. (2005). Programming of appetite and type 2 diabetes. Early Human Development, 81(12), 981–988 (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2005.10.006.
  51. McCurdy, C.E., Bishop, J.M., Williams, S.M., Grayson, B.E., Smith, M.S., Friedman, J.E., et al. (2009). Maternal high-fat diet triggers lipotoxicity in the fetal livers of nonhuman primates. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 119(2), 323–335 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1172/jci32661.
  52. Mexican Department of Health (2001). Manual de atención. Embarazo saludable, parto y puerperio seguros, recién nacido sano. http://www.paho.org/mex/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=576&Itemid=. Accessed 11 Feb 2014.
  53. Milgrom, J., Gemmill, A.W., Bilszta, J.L., Hayes, B., Barnett, B., Brooks, J., et al. (2008). Antenatal risk factors for postnatal depression: a large prospective study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 108(1–2), 147–157 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2007.10.014.
  54. Monk, C. (2001). Stress and mood disorders during pregnancy: implications for child development. Psychiatric Quarterly, 72(4), 347–357.Google Scholar
  55. Mulder, E.J., Robles de Medina, P.G., Huizink, A.C., Van den Bergh, B.R., Buitelaar, J.K., Visser, G. H. (2002). Prenatal maternal stress: effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Human Development, 70(1–2), 3–14.Google Scholar
  56. Muñoz, M.P., & Oliva, P.M. (2009). Los estresores psicosociales se asocian a síndrome hipertensivo del embarazo y/o síntomas de parto prematuro en el embarazo adolescente. Revista Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecología, 74(5), 281–285 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.4067/s0717-75262009000500003.
  57. Mutale, T., Creed, F., Maresh, M., Hunt, L. (1991). Life events and low birthweight–analysis by infants preterm and small for gestational age. British Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, 98(2), 166–172.Google Scholar
  58. Nathanielsz, P.W., Poston, L., Taylor, P.D. (2007). In utero exposure to maternal obesity and diabetes: animal models that identify and characterize implications for future health. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America, 34(2), 201–212 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ogc.2007.03.006.
  59. National Institute of Statistics and Geography (2013a). Estadísticas a propósito del día mundial de la salud. Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía, Aguascalientes, Ags. a 7 de abril del. Sala de Prensa.Google Scholar
  60. National Institute of Statistics and Geography (2013b). Indicadores de demografía y población. http://www3.inegi.org.mx/sistemas/temas/default.aspx?s=est&c=17484. Accessed 7 Jan 2014.
  61. Nepomnaschy, P.A., Welch, K.B., McConnell, D.S., Low, B.S., Strassmann, B.I., England, B.G. (2006). Cortisol levels and very early pregnancy loss in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 103(10), 3938–3942 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0511183103.
  62. Nonacs, R., & Cohen, L.S. (2002). Depression during pregnancy: diagnosis and treatment options. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63(Suppl 7), 24–30.Google Scholar
  63. Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-007-SSA2-1993. Atención de la mujer durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio y del recién nacido. Criterios y procedimientos para la prestación del servicio 1994.Google Scholar
  64. Oken, E., & Gillman, M.W. (2003). Fetal origins of obesity. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 11(4), 496–506 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.69.
  65. Ordoñez, J. (2005). Evaluación del riesgo materno-neonatal durante el embarazo. Investigaciones Andina, 7(10), 38–47.Google Scholar
  66. Orr, S.T., James, S.A., Blackmore Prince, C. (2002). Maternal prenatal depressive symptoms and spontaneous preterm births among African-American women in Baltimore, Maryland. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156(9), 797–802.Google Scholar
  67. Orr, S.T., Reiter, J.P., Blazer, D.G., James, S.A. (2007). Maternal Prenatal Pregnancy-Related Anxiety and Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Baltimore, Maryland. Psychosomatic Medicine, 69(6), 566–570 (2007). https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=00006842-200707000-00013.
  68. Paarlberg, K.M., Vingerhoets, A.J., Passchier, J., Dekker, G.A., Heinen, A.G., van Geijn, H.P. (1999). Psychosocial predictors of low birthweight: a prospective study. British Journal of Obstetics and Gynaecology, 106(8), 843–841.Google Scholar
  69. Paarlberg, K.M., Vingerhoets, A.J., Passchier, J., Dekker, G.A., Van Geijn, H.P. (1995). Psychosocial factors and pregnancy outcome: a review with emphasis on methodological issues. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39(5), 563–595.Google Scholar
  70. Paarlberg, K.M., Vingerhoets, A.J., Passchier, J., Dekker, G.A., van Geijn, H.P. (1996). Psychosocial factors as predictors of maternal well-being and pregnancy-related complaints. Journal Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynaecolgy, 17(2), 93–102.Google Scholar
  71. Pawluski, J.L., van den Hove, D.L.A., Rayen, I., Prickaerts, J., Steinbusch, H.W.M. (2011). Stress and the pregnant female: Impact on hippocampal cell proliferation, but not affective-like behaviors. Hormones and Behavior, 59(4), 572–580 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2011.02.012.
  72. Pérez-Rúa, Y.A. (2005). Embarazo de alto riesgo. In F. Espinoza (Ed.). La Neonatología en la Atención Primaria (pp. 35–39). La Paz: M.S.D.Google Scholar
  73. Pimentel, B. (2007). Ansiedad, depresión y funcionalidad familiar en embarazo de alto riesgo obstétrico en el hospital materno infantil de la C.N.S., la Paz- Bolivia. Revista Paceña de Medicina Familiar, 4(5), 15–19.Google Scholar
  74. Qiu, C., Williams, M.A., Calderon-Margalit, R., Cripe, S.M., Sorensen, T.K. (2009). Preeclampsia risk in relation to maternal mood and anxiety disorders diagnosed before or during early pregnancy. American Journal of Hypertension, 22(4), 397–402 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1038/ajh.2008.366.
  75. Raghupathy, R., & Kalinka, J. (2008). Cytokine imbalance in pregnancy complications and its modulation. Frontiers in Bioscience: a Journal and virtual library, 13, 985–994.Google Scholar
  76. Remacle, C., Dumortier, O., Bol, V., Goosse, K., Romanus, P., Theys, N., et al. (2007). Intrauterine programming of the endocrine pancreas. Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism, 9(2), 196–209 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1463-1326.2007.00790.x.
  77. Reusens, B., Ozanne, S.E., Remacle, C. (2007). Fetal determinants of type 2 diabetes. Current Drug Targets, 8, 935–941.Google Scholar
  78. Rofey, D.L., Kolko, R.P., Iosif, A.M., Silk, J.S., Bost, J. E., Feng, W., et al. (2009). A Longitudinal Study of Childhood Depression and Anxiety in Relation to Weight Gain. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 40(4), 517–526 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10578-009-0141-1.
  79. Romero, R., Mazor, M., Munoz, H., Gomez, R., Galasso, M., Sherer, D.M. (1994). The preterm labor syndrome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 734, 414–429.Google Scholar
  80. Romo-Gonzalez, T., Retureta, Y.B., Sánchez-Rodríguez, E.N., Martínez, J.A., Chavarría, A., Gutiérrez-Ospina, G. (2012). Moderate anxiety in pregnant women does not compromise gestational immune-endocrine status and outcome, but renders mothers to be susceptible for diseased states development: A preliminary report. Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3, 101–106 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.4236/abb.2012.31015.
  81. Ruiz, R.J., Fullerton, J., Dudley, D.J. (2003). The Interrelationship of Maternal Stress, Endocrine Factors and Inflammation On Gestational Length. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 58(6), 415–428 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.ogx.0000071160.26072.de.
  82. Salacz, P., Csukly, G., Haller, J., Valent, S. (2012). Association between subjective feelings of distress, plasma cortisol, anxiety, and depression in pregnant women. European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 165(2), 225–230 (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2012.08.017.
  83. Sandman, C.A., Glynn, L., Schetter, C.D., Wadhwa, P., Garite, T., Chicz-DeMet., A., et al. (2006). Elevated maternal cortisol early in pregnancy predicts third trimester levels of placental corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH): Priming the placental clock. Peptides, 27(6), 1457–1463 (2006).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.peptides.2005.10.002.
  84. Sandman, C.A., Wadhwa, P.D., Chicz-DeMet, A., Porto, M., Garite, T.J. (1999). Maternal corticotropin-releasing hormone and habituation in the human fetus. Developmental Psychobiology, 34(3), 163–173.Google Scholar
  85. Sandovici, I., Smith, N.H., Nitert, M. D., Ackers-Johnson, M., Uribe-Lewis, S., Ito, Y., et al. (2011). Maternal diet and aging alter the epigenetic control of a promoter–enhancer interaction at the Hnf4a gene in rat pancreatic islets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(13), 5449–5454 (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1019007108.
  86. Sargent, I.L., Borzychowski, A.M., Redman, C.W.G. (2007). NK cells and pre-eclampsia. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 76(1–2), 40–44 (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jri.2007.03.009.
  87. Schneider, M.L., Roughton, E.C., Koehler, A.J., Lubach, G.R. (1999). Growth and Development Following Prenatal Stress Exposure in Primates: An Examination of Ontogenetic Vulnerability. Child Development, 70(2), 263–274.Google Scholar
  88. Senties, M., & Ortiz, G. (1993). Evaluación de los niveles de ansiedad y el estado emocional en mujeres embarazadas de bajo nivel socioeconómico. Psicología y Salud. Nueva Época, 2, 47–54.Google Scholar
  89. Smith, R. (1998). Alterations in the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during pregnancy and the placental clock that determines the length of parturition. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 39(1–2), 215–220.Google Scholar
  90. Steer, R.A., Scholl, T.O., Hediger, M.L., Fischer, R.L. (1992). Self-reported depression and negative pregnancy outcomes. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 45(10), 1093–1099.Google Scholar
  91. Szyf, M., McGowan, P., Meaney, M.J. (2008). The social environment and the epigenome. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 49, 46–60 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1002/em.20357.
  92. Teixeira, C., Figueiredo, B., Conde, A., Pacheco, A., Costa, R. (2009). Anxiety and depression during pregnancy in women and men. Journal of Affective Disorders, 119(1–3), 142–148 (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.03.005.
  93. van den Bergh, B.R.H. (1992). Maternal emotions during pregnancy and fetal and neonatal behaviour. In J.G. Nijhuios (Ed.). Fetal behaviour. Developmental and perinatal aspects (pp. 157–174). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  94. van Dijken, H.H., Mos, J., van der Heyden, J.A., Tilders, F.J. (1992). Characterization of stress-induced long-term behavioural changes in rats: evidence in favor of anxiety. Physiology & Behavior, 52(5), 945–951.Google Scholar
  95. Veenstra van Nieuwenhoven, A.L., Heineman, M.J., Faas, M.M. (2003). The immunology of successful pregnancy. Human Reproduction Update, 9(4), 347–357.Google Scholar
  96. Vianna, P., Bauer, M.E., Dornfeld, D., Chies, J.A.B. (2011). Distress conditions during pregnancy may lead to pre-eclampsia by increasing cortisol levels and altering lymphocyte sensitivity to glucocorticoids. Medical Hypotheses, 77(2), 188–191(2011).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2011.04.007.
  97. Vickers, M.H., Breier, B.H., McCarthy, D., Gluckman, P.D. (2003). Sedentary behaviour during postnatal life is determined by the prenatal environment and exacerbated by postnatal hypercaloric nutrition. American Journal of Physiology - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 285, R271–R273 (2003).  https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00051.2003.
  98. Wadhwa, P., Culhane, J., Rauh, V., Barve, S. (2001). Stress and Preterm Birth: Neuroendocrine, Immune/Inflammatory, and Vascular Mechanisms. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 5(2), 119–125.Google Scholar
  99. Wadhwa, P.D., Sandman, C.A., Porto, M., Dunkel-Schetter, C., Garite, T.J. (1993). The association between prenatal stress and infant birthweight and gestational age at birth: A prospective investigation. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 169(4), 858–865.Google Scholar
  100. Walker, J.G., Littlejohn, G.O., McMurray, N.E., Cutolo, M. (1999). Stress system response and rheumatoid arthritis: a multilevel approach. Rheumatology, 38(11), 1050–1057.Google Scholar
  101. Waring, M.E., & Lapane, K.L. (2008). Overweight in Children and Adolescents in Relation to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Results From a National Sample. Pediatrics, 122, e1–e6 (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2007-1955.
  102. Waterland, R.A., Travisano, M., Tahiliani, K.G. (2007). Diet-induced hypermethylation at agouti viable yellow is not inherited transgenerationally through the female. The FASEB Journal: official publication of the Federation of the American Societies for Experimental Biology, 21(12), 3380–3385.Google Scholar
  103. Winkel, S., Einsle, F., Pieper, L., Höfler, M., Wittchen, H.U., Martini, J. (2015). Associations of anxiety disorders, depressive disorders and body weight with hypertension during pregnancy. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 18(3), 473–483 (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-014-0474-z.
  104. World Health Organization (2000). Trabajando con individuos, familias y comunidades para mejorar la salud materna y neonatal. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2010/WHO_MPS_09.06_spa.pdf. Accessed 26 Mar 2015.
  105. World Health Organization (2014). Mortalidad Materna.http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs348/es/. Accessed 7 Jan 2014.

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tania Romo-González
    • 1
  • Raquel González-Ochoa
    • 1
  • Rosalba León-Díaz
    • 1
  • Gabriel Gutiérrez-Ospina
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Integrated Health and BiologyInstitute of Biological Research, Universidad VeracruzanaXalapaMexico
  2. 2.Institute of Biomedical Research, UNAMMexico CityMexico

Personalised recommendations