Care of Gender Nonconforming/Transgender Youth

  • Janet Y. Lee
  • Liat Perl
  • Stephen M. Rosenthal


In many parts of the world, increasing numbers of gender nonconforming/transgender youth are seeking medical services to enable the development of physical characteristics consistent with their experienced gender. Such medical services include use of agents to block endogenous puberty at Tanner stage 2 with subsequent use of cross-sex hormones and are based on longitudinal studies demonstrating that those individuals who were first identified as gender dysphoric in early or middle childhood and continue to meet the mental health criteria for being transgender at early puberty are likely to be transgender as adults. This chapter addresses terms and definitions applicable to gender nonconforming youth, studies that shed light on the biologic underpinnings of gender identity, outcomes and potential complications of current treatment models, gaps in knowledge, and priorities for research.


Gender nonconforming youth Transgender youth Gender identity Gender dysphoria Biology of gender Pubertal blockers Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists Cross-sex hormones Estradiol Testosterone 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janet Y. Lee
    • 1
  • Liat Perl
    • 2
  • Stephen M. Rosenthal
    • 3
  1. 1.Adult and Pediatric Endocrinology, Internal Medicine and PediatricsUniversity of California, San Francisco, Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  2. 2.Pediatric Endocrinology, PediatricsUniversity of California, San Francisco, Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA
  3. 3.Pediatric Endocrinology, Pediatrics, Child and Adolescent Gender CenterUniversity of California, San Francisco, Benioff Children’s HospitalSan FranciscoUSA

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