Inflammatory Heart Diseases in Children

  • Adam L. WareEmail author
  • Dongngan T. Truong
  • Lloyd Y. Tani


Inflammatory heart diseases include rheumatic fever, Kawasaki disease, and myocarditis. These conditions all stem from an inflammatory process that may lead to significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. These patients often present initially to the emergency department, and prompt recognition and treatment of these conditions are essential. Rheumatic fever is caused by group A streptococcal (GAS) infections and is diagnosed using the Jones criteria. Rheumatic fever may lead to mitral and/or aortic valve dysfunction. Kawasaki disease is a systemic vasculitis that affects medium-sized arteries. Diagnostic criteria include fever, conjunctivitis, mucositis, extremity changes, rash, and lymphadenopathy. Patients may present with shock related to myocarditis and can develop aneurysms in the coronary arteries with the potential for ischemic heart disease. Treatment consists of immunomodulators and anticoagulation. Myocarditis has numerous causes but is most commonly secondary to a viral illness. Clinical presentation varies widely, but patients may present acutely in cardiogenic shock. Treatment consists of immunomodulators and heart failure medications.


Inflammatory heart disease Rheumatic fever Rheumatic carditis Kawasaki disease Coronary artery aneurysm Myocarditis Cardiomyopathy 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adam L. Ware
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dongngan T. Truong
    • 1
  • Lloyd Y. Tani
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric CardiologyUniversity of Utah School of Medicine, Primary Children’s HospitalSalt Lake CityUSA

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