Advertisement

The Acid Test: Reconstructing the Occupation of Urban Public Space as a Socially Determined Practice

  • Nils C. Kumkar
Chapter
Part of the Critical Political Theory and Radical Practice book series (CPTRP)

Abstract

Using the results of his multi-layered, comparative study on the Tea Party and Occupy Wall Street, Kumkar reconstructs Occupy Wall Street’s occupation of Zuccotti Park as a socially determined protest-practice. The explosive growth of the occupation has to be understood as rooted in the resonance of the protesters’ lived experience of the crisis with the practice of the occupation. The occupation allowed them to overcome fears of collective action and catered to their dialogical habitus. However, the complex relation between this resonance and other social group’s habitual affinity, together with the dynamic of the social fields around the protest, hindered Occupy Wall Street from transforming this originally successful practice into a more sustainable social movement when the park was evicted.

Bibliography

  1. Aalbers, Manuel B. 2012. Socializing Space and Politicizing Financial Innovation/Destruction: Some Observations on Occupy Wall Street. Belgeo. Revue Belge de Géographie, 1–2. http://belgeo.revues.org/6155. Accessed 17 Nov 2017.
  2. Adbusters. 2011a. #OCCUPYWALLSTREET A Shift in Revolutionary Tactics. https://www.adbusters.org/blogs/adbusters-blog/occupywallstreet.html. Accessed 15 May 2013.
  3. ———. 2011b. Tactical Briefing #18 – Occupy the High Ground, November 14. https://www.adbusters.org/blogs/adbusters-blog/adbusters-tactical-briefing-18.html. Accessed 15 Oct 2013.
  4. Algar, Selim. 2011. Occupy Wall Street Kitchen Staff Protesting Fixing Food for Freeloaders. New York Post, November 27.Google Scholar
  5. Appel, Hannah Chadeayne. 2011. The Ritual of General Assembly and the Bureaucracies of Anarchy. https://socialtextjournal.org/the_rituals_of_general_assembly_and_the_bureaucracies_of_anarchy/. Accessed 17 Nov 2017.
  6. Bellafante, Ginia. 2011. Protesters Are Gunning for Wall Street, With Faulty Aim. The New York Times, September 23. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/09/25/nyregion/protesters-are-gunning-for-wall-street-with-faulty-aim.html. Accessed 17 Nov 2017.
  7. Berlant, Lauren. 2011. Cruel Optimism. Durham: Duke University Press Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1991. The Craft of Sociology: Epistemological Preliminaries. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. ———. 1994. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft. Suhrkamp: Frankfurt am Main.Google Scholar
  10. Butler, Judith. 2011. Bodies in Alliance and the Politics of the Street. Presented at the The State of Things, Venice, July 9. http://eipcp.net/transversal/1011/butler/en. Accessed 17 Nov 2017.
  11. Candeias, Mario, and Eva Völpel. 2014. Plätze Sichern! ReOrganisierung der Linken in der Krise. Zur Lernfähigkeit des Mosaiks in den USA, Spanien und Griechenland. Hamburg: VSA.Google Scholar
  12. Dean, Jodi. 2012. Occupy Wall Street: After the Anarchist Moment. Socialist Register 49 (49): 52–62.Google Scholar
  13. ———. 2016. Crowds and Party. New York: Verso.Google Scholar
  14. Della Porta, Donatella, and Alice Mattoni. 2014. Patterns of Diffusion and the Transnational Dimension of Protest in the Movements of the Crisis: An Introduction. In Spreading Protest. Social Movements in Times of Crisis, 1–18. Colchester: ECPR Press.Google Scholar
  15. Frank, Thomas. 2012. To the Precinct Station – How Theory Met Practice…and Drove It Absolutely Crazy. The Baffler, 21. http://www.thebaffler.com/past/to_the_precinct_station. Accessed 17 Nov 2017.
  16. Gilcher-Holtey, Ingrid. 1998. Mai 68 in Frankreich. In 1968: Vom Ereignis zum Gegenstand der Geschichtswissenschaft, 11–34. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.Google Scholar
  17. Gould-Wartofsky, Michael A. 2015. The Occupiers: The Making of the 99 Percent Movement. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Graeber, David. 2013. The Democracy Project: A History, a Crisis, a Movement. New York: Spiegel and Grau.Google Scholar
  19. Hammond, John L. 2013. The Significance of Space in Occupy Wall Street. Interface: A Journal for and about Social Movements 5 (2): 499–524.Google Scholar
  20. Hardt, Michael, and Antonio Negri. 2017. Assembly. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Kroll, Andy. 2011. How Occupy Wall Street Really Got Started. Mother Jones, October 17. http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/10/occupy-wall-street-international-origins?page=1. Accessed 1 Nov 2017.
  22. Kumkar, Nils C. 2016. The Meaning of the Park – How the New York City General Assembly Became ‘Occupy Wall Street’ and Never Recovered from Its Success. City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action. 20 (5): 700–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Madden, David J., and Antonis Vradis. 2012. From Athens to Occupy and Back: Introduction to Cities in Upheaval. City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action. 16 (1–2): 235–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Marcuse, Peter. 2011. #5. The Purpose of the Occupation Movement and the Danger Of Fetishizing Space. Peter Marcuse’s Blog, November 15. https://pmarcuse.wordpress.com/2011/11/15/the-purpose-of-the-occupation-movement-and-the-danger-of-fetishizing-space/. Accessed 1 Nov 2017.
  25. McAdam, Doug. 1999. Political Process and the Development of Black Insurgency, 1930–1970. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McAdam, Doug, and Dieter Rucht. 1993. The Cross-National Diffusion of Movement Ideas. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 528 (1): 56–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Milkman, Ruth, Stephanie Luce, and Penny Lewis. 2013. Changing the Subject: A Bottom-Up Account of Occupy Wall Street in New York City. New York: Joseph S. Murphy Institute for Worker Education and Labor Studies. https://www.documentcloud.org/documents/562862-changing-the-subject-2.html. Accessed 1 Nov 2017.
  28. Mörtenböck, Peter, and Helge Mooshammer. 2012. Occupy: Räume des Protests. Bielefeld: transcript.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. NYCGA. 2011a. General Assembly Minutes 9/17/11. http://www.nycga.net/2011/09/general-assembly-minutes-91711/. Accessed 4 June 2016.
  30. ———. 2011b. General Assembly Minutes 9/23/11. http://www.nycga.net/2011/09/general-assembly-minutes-7pm-92311/. Accessed 4 June 2016.
  31. ———. 2011c. Proposal for Saturday 12/10 General Assembly: Formation of Houseless Working Group & Caucus. http://www.nycga.net/2011/12/proposal-for-saturday-1210-general-assembly-formation-of-houseless-working-group-caucus/. Accessed 15 Mar 2013.
  32. Pickerill, Jenny, and John Krinsky. 2012. Why Does Occupy Matter? Social Movement Studies 11 (3/4): 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rehmann, Jan. 2013. Occupy Wall Street and the Question of Hegemony: A Gramscian Analysis. Socialism and Democracy 27 (1): 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schneider, Nathan. 2013. Thank You, Anarchy: Notes From the Occupy Apocalypse. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  35. Schrader, Stuart, and David Wachsmuth. 2012. Reflections on Occupy Wall Street, the State and Space. City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 16 (1–2): 243–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Standing, Guy. 2011. The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  37. Taylor, Blair. 2013. From Alterglobalization to Occupy Wall Street: Neoanarchism and the New Spirit of the Left. City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 17 (6): 729–747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. The Daily Show. 2011. Occupy Wall Street Divided. New York: Comedy Central. http://thedailyshow.cc.com/videos/5510me/occupy-wall-street-divided. Accessed 15 Mar 2013.
  39. Wacquant, Loïc J.D. 2008. Urban Outcasts: A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nils C. Kumkar
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BremenBremenGermany

Personalised recommendations