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The Plant Stem pp 121-132 | Cite as

Evolution of stems

  • Fritz H. Schweingruber
  • Annett Börner
Open Access
Chapter

Abstract

Writing a comprehensive story about stem evaluation is difficult because evidence of only few early plants has been preserved over millions of years. Samples exist of plants which were fossilized under anaerobic conditions, enclosed in resin (amber) or carbonized. The majority of plants from sites with aerobic soil conditions are not preserved.

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© The Author(s) 2018

<SimplePara><Emphasis Type="Bold">Open Access</Emphasis> This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.</SimplePara> <SimplePara>The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.</SimplePara>

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fritz H. Schweingruber
    • 1
  • Annett Börner
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research – WSLBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.Melrose ParkAustralia

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