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Introduction

  • Fritz H. Schweingruber
  • Annett Börner
Open Access
Chapter

Abstract

Terrestrial life forms made their move on land about 400 million years ago. Plants crossed the barrier between life in water to life in the atmosphere. With the invention of stable stems, plants overcame hydrological and mechanical problems. The construction of plant stems is the focus of this book. It demonstrates that nature created a framework in which plant stems evolved—annual herbs as well as century-old, 100 m-tall trees, from tropical to arctic environments.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

<SimplePara><Emphasis Type="Bold">Open Access</Emphasis> This chapter is licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license and indicate if changes were made.</SimplePara> <SimplePara>The images or other third party material in this chapter are included in the chapter's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the chapter's Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder.</SimplePara>

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fritz H. Schweingruber
    • 1
  • Annett Börner
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research – WSLBirmensdorfSwitzerland
  2. 2.Melrose ParkAustralia

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