Variants of MDS Models

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
  • Patrick Mair
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Statistics book series (BRIEFSSTATIST)


Various forms of MDS are discussed: ordinal MDS, metric MDS, MDS with different distance functions, MDS for asymmetric proximities, individual difference MDS models, MDS for more than one proximity value per distance, and weighting proximities in MDS.


Ordinal MDS Interval MDS Ratio MDS Drift vector model indscal idioscal Unfolding 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
    • 2
  • Patrick Mair
    • 3
  1. 1.Westfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMuensterGermany
  2. 2.Econometric InstituteErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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