• Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
  • Patrick Mair
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Statistics book series (BRIEFSSTATIST)


The data for MDS, proximities, are discussed. Proximities can be collected directly as judgments of similarity; proximities can be derived from data vectors; proximities may result from converting other indexes; and co-occurrence data are yet another popular form of proximities.


Similarity ratings Sorting method Feature model LCJ model Co-occurrence data S-coefficient Jaccard coefficient Simple matching coefficient Gravity model 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick J. F. Groenen
    • 2
  • Patrick Mair
    • 3
  1. 1.Westfälische Wilhelms-UniversitätMuensterGermany
  2. 2.Econometric InstituteErasmus University RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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