Expression Dynamics of Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) in Livestock under Thermal Stress

  • Satyaveer Singh Dangi
  • Jaya Bharati
  • Hari Abdul Samad
  • Sanjeev Kumar Bhure
  • Gyanendra Singh
  • Vijai Prakash Maurya
  • Mihir Sarkar
  • Puneet Kumar
Chapter
Part of the Heat Shock Proteins book series (HESP, volume 12)

Abstract

Increased ambient temperature increases heat gain by animal which results in heat stress and reduced performance, leading to decreased efficiency of livestock farming. In addition to adaptive biochemical, endocrine and physiological responses, the molecular events that underlie thermotolerance involve the coordinated synthesis of series of heat stress responsive genes, which are responsible for amelioration of deleterious effects of heat stress. Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) are the key players in the adaptive responses to the stress. Intracellular HSP70 confers cytoprotection against thermal and oxidative stress induced cellular damage. Heat Shock Factor (HSF) are the regulatory proteins that is activated by heat stress and control transcription of HSP by binding to Heat Shock Elements (HSE) in HSP genes. Heat shock causes profound modulation in cell signaling pathways that lead to transcription of Nitric oxide synthases (NOS), Toll like receptors and Interleukins. Studies on heat stress in livestock and model animals indicate that TLR 2/4 and IL 2/6 possibly play a vital role via activation of the JAK-STAT pathway. Crosstalk between HSP90, iNOS and eNOS play an important role in mitigating thermal insults and confer thermo tolerance during long term heat stress exposure in livestock. Recent study indicates important roles of Vitamin C, Vitamin E plus Selenium and Betaine as an antioxidant in maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Positive correlation has been found between melatonin and HSP, which explains its importance in heat stress adaptation. These mechanisms possibly work in an orchestrated manner to minimize the devastating effect of heat stress and play pivotal role in the thermotolerance by blocking heat stress-induced cellular death, which helps livestock in acclimation to heat stress.

Keywords

Betaine Cytoprotection Heat Shock Proteins Heat Stress Immune Response Interleukins Nitric oxide synthases Oxidative Stress Selenium Toll like receptors Vitamin C Vitamin E 

Abbreviations

20S

20S proteasome

Apaf-1

Apoptotic protease activating factor - 1

APC

Antigen presenting cells

ATP

Adenosine triphosphate

CD14

Cluster of differentiation 14

CTL

Cytotoxic lymphocyte

DAMPs

Damage associated molecular patterns

DC

Dendritic cells

DNA

Deoxyribonucleic Acid

E2

Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme

eHSP

Extracellular heat shock proteins

eNOS

Endothelial nitric oxide synthases

FBS

Fetal bovine serum

Gp96

Glucose regulated protein 96

GPx

Glutathione peroxidase

GR

Glucocorticoid receptor

GSH

Glutathione

HL-60

Human promyelocytic leukemia 60

HR

Heart rate

HS

Heat stress

HSE

Heat shock elements;

HSF

Heat shock factor;

HSP

Heat shock proteins

htpG

High temperature protein G

iHSP

Intracellular heat shock proteins

IL

Interleukins

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthases

JAK-STAT

Janus Kinase – signal transductor and activator of transcription

LPS

Lipopolysaccharides

LTA

Lipoteichoic acid

MAPK

Mitogen activated protein kinase

mM

Millimolar

mRNA

Messenger ribonucleic acid

NFkB

Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NHS

Non-heat stressed

NK

Natural killer

NO

Nitric oxide

NOS

Nitric oxide synthases

OH

Hydroxyl

PAMPs

Pathogen associated molecular patterns

pAPCs

Professional antigen presenting cells

PBMC

Peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PRRs

Pattern recognition receptors

qPCR

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction

RIP-1

Receptor interacting serine/threonine protein 1

RNS

Reactive nitrogen species

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

RR

Respiratory rate

RT

Rectal temperature

Se

Selenium

SOD

Superoxide dismutase

THI

Temperature humidity index

TLR

Toll like receptors

TMI

Transition metal ions

TNF-α

Tumor necrosis factor-α

UBI

Ubiquitin

μM

Micromolar

pAPCs

Professional antigen

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) and Director, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, India for providing funds for the work.

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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satyaveer Singh Dangi
    • 1
  • Jaya Bharati
    • 2
  • Hari Abdul Samad
    • 2
  • Sanjeev Kumar Bhure
    • 3
  • Gyanendra Singh
    • 2
  • Vijai Prakash Maurya
    • 2
  • Mihir Sarkar
    • 2
  • Puneet Kumar
    • 2
  1. 1.Temperate Animal Husbandry DivisionIndian Veterinary Research Institute Campus at MukteshwarMukteshwarIndia
  2. 2.Division of Physiology and ClimatologyIndian Veterinary Research InstituteIzatnagarIndia
  3. 3.Animal Biochemistry DivisionIndian Veterinary Research InstituteIzatnagarIndia

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