Pakistan, a Glocalized Context for Global Media Climate Change Research

  • Ingrid Volkmer
  • Kasim Sharif
Part of the The Palgrave Macmillan Series in International Political Communication book series (PIPC)


Diverting from the traditional dichotomy of national versus transnational media, from a focus on the nation state towards actoral connectivity across societies and from a methodological research dichotomy of ‘linear’ vs networked media (e.g. Cottle in Environmental conflict and the media. Peter Lang, Oxford, pp. 13–28, 2013), this study concentrates on a less investigated South Asian country, Pakistan. Pakistan—even though being a low-income country and being continuously challenged by all kind of crises—cannot ‘only’ be reduced to these economical or conflict strata but we need to begin to assess developing regions in a new perspective.


  1. Afzal, T. (2012, May 12). Role of media in Pakistan. Ilm Ki Duniya. Retrieved from
  2. Ali, Z. (2010). Domesticating global content-Pakistan. In E. Eide, R. Kunelius, & V. Kumpu (Eds.), Global climate—Local journalisms: A transnational study of how media make sense of climate summits. Bochum: Projekt Verlag.Google Scholar
  3. Asian Development Bank. (2014). Determining the potential for carbon capture and storage. Retrieved from
  4. Billett, S. (2009). Dividing climate change: Global warming in the Indian mass media. Climatic Change, 99(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  5. Boykoff, M. T. (2008). Lost in translation? United States television news coverage of anthropogenic climate change, 1995–2004. Climate Change, 86(1–2), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burgess, J. (1990). The production and consumption of environmental meanings in the mass media: A research agenda for the 1990s. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 15(2), 139–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carpenter, C. (2001). Businesses, green groups and the media: The role of non-governmental organisations in the climate change debate. International Affairs, 77(2), 313–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Climate Change: Cut in budget scuttles mitigation efforts. (2013, June 22). The Express Tribune.
  9. Cottle, S. (2013). Environmental conflict in a global, media age: Beyond dualisms. In L. Lester & B. Hutchins (Eds.), Environmental conflict and the media. Global crises and the media (pp. 13–28). Oxford: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  10. EvK2CNR. (2013). Karakoram resources and climate change: Glacier, water and ecosystem (Scientific conference webpage). Retrieved from
  11. Farooqi, A. B., Khan, A. H., & Mir, A. (2005). Climate change perspective in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Meteorology, 2(3), 11–21.Google Scholar
  12. Friedman, L. (2013, May 13). Can Pakistan survive climate change? Retrieved from E & E Publishing website:
  13. Gah, S. (2015, April 7). Pakistan: Signatures success! Ministry for Climate Change restored after national campaign. Retrieved from WELDD website:
  14. Giddens, A. (2009). The politics of climate change. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  15. Gronewold, N. (2010, August 18). Is the flooding in Pakistan a climate change disaster? Scientific American. Retrieved from
  16. Guriro, M. A. (2009). Environmental journalism in Pakistan. Paper presented at the 18th APFEJ Congress of Environmental Journalists. Retrieved from APFEJ website:
  17. ICT ranking: Pakistan among least connected nations, stands at 142nd place. (2014, November 30). The Express Tribune. Retrieved from
  18. International Union for Conservation of Nature. (n.d.). Bio-cultural diversity. Retrieved from
  19. International Union for Conservation of Nature. (2012). Climate change and coastal districts of Balochistan-situation analysis, implications and recommendations. Retrieved from
  20. Iqbal, A. (2013, September 30). Silence on climate change: A global crime? Huffington Post. Retrieved from
  21. Jeswani, D. H. (2009). Corporate response to climate change in Pakistan (LEAD Pakistan Occasional Paper, 24). Islamabad: LEAD Pakistan.Google Scholar
  22. Jeswani, H. K., Wehrmeyer, W., & Mulugetta, Y. (2008). How warm is the corporate response to climate change? Evidence from Pakistan and the UK. Business Strategy and Environment, 17(1), 46–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Khan, A. A. (2011, May 4). The devolution disaster. The News. Retrieved from
  24. Khan, H. R. (2012). Review of Pakistan National Climate Change Policy: Strengthening Participatory Organization. Retrieved from LEAD website:
  25. Khan, R. S. (2011, January 14). No can in Cancun. The Friday Times. Retrieved from
  26. Khan, R. S. (2014, March 13). Impact of climate change in Pakistan. The Express Tribune. Retrieved from
  27. Khan, M. A. A., Amir, P., Ramay, S. A., Munawar, Z., & Ahmad, V. (2011). National Economic and Environmental Development Study. Retrieved from UNFCCC website:
  28. Kim, S. Y. (2011). Public perceptions of climate change and support for climate policies in Asia: Evidence from recent polls. The Journal of Asian Studies, 70(2), 319–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kreft, S., & Eckstein, D. (2014). Global climate risk index 2014 (Briefing paper). Retrieved from Germanwatch website:
  30. Kugelman, M. (2012). Social media in Pakistan: Catalyst for communication, not change (NOREF Report). Retrieved from Norwegian Peacebuilding Resource Centre website:
  31. Leadership for Environment and Development Pakistan. (2008). Ecological Footprint calculator. Retrieved from
  32. Malik, S. M., Awan, H., & Khan, N. U. (2010). A Study of the effects of climate change on human health in Pakistan: Evidence-based policy advocacy. Retrieved from Sightsavers website:
  33. Maplecroft. (2010). Water security. Retrieved from
  34. Michaelsen, M. (2011). New media vs. old politics. The internet, social media, and democratisation in Pakistan [e-book]. Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung. Retrieved from
  35. Muhammad, H. (2014, February 26). Climate change: The future is not like the past. ARY news. Retrieved from
  36. Mumtaz, M. (2014, June 18). Flaws in climate change policy. Pakistan Observer. Retrieved from
  37. Murninghan, M. (2010, August 27). Fighting the fury: Climate change, natural disasters, and the business response. Retrieved March 17, 2015, from The Murninghan Post:
  38. Naeem, W. (2013, February 27). Pakistan launches first National Climate Change Policy. The Express Tribune.
  39. Naeem, W. (2013, June 24). Scientific venture: How much is climate change hurting glaciers? The Express Tribune.
  40. Naeem, W. (2013, September 29). Global warming: Experts endorse UN Panel’s findings. The Express Tribune.
  41. Pakistan at war with climate change. (2014, October 19). The Nation. Retrieved from
  42. Pakistan Environmentalists Association [PEA]. (2010). Mission statement. Retrieved from
  43. Pakistan Electronic Media Authority. (2009). Annual report 2006–2009. Retrieved from
  44. Pakistan Electronic Media Authority. (2014, October).
  45. PEW Research Center. (2007, June 27). Global unease with major world powers. Retrieved from
  46. Rasul, G., Afzal, M., Zahid, M., & Bukhari, S. A. (2012). Climate change in Pakistan: Focused on Sindh Province (Technical Report No. PMD-25/2012). Retrieved from Pakistan Meteorological Department website:
  47. Rathor, A. (2014, August 31). Climate change and Pakistan [Weblog post]. Retrieved from Revolution Flame website:
  48. Raza, T., & Birmani, T. (2010, August 4). Pakistan: Flood hits Kot Addu, threatens Kapco. Retrieved from Reliefweb website:
  49. Reser, J. P., Bradley, G. L., Glendon, A. I., Ellul, M. C., & Callaghan, R. (2012). Public risk perceptions, understandings and responses to climate change and natural disasters in Australia, 2010 and 2011. Retrieved from National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility (NCCARF) website:
  50. Ricchiardi, S. (2012). Challenges for independent news media in Pakistan. Retrieved from Center for Reliefweb website:
  51. Saeed, A. (2013, July 1). Climate change: Pakistan’s anti-climactic response. Dawn.
  52. Saeed, A. (2014, April 12). Provinces refuse to share powers with Climate Change Division. Business Recorder.
  53. Sahi, A. (2012, June 22). Future climate impacts to cost Pakistan. The News International.
  54. Salman, A. (2010, March 6). Asia. Retrieved December 22, 2014, from Global Voices website:
  55. Sayed, A. H. (n.d.). Climate change and its realities for Pakistan (Paper no. 288). Paper presented at the Symposium Changing Environmental Pattern and its impact with Special Focus on Pakistan. Retrieved from:
  56. Shafiq, M., & Kakar, M. A. (2007). Effects of drought on livestock sector in Balochistan Province of Pakistan. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9(4), 657–665.Google Scholar
  57. Shahid, J. (2012, November 23). Climate change ministry to miss global event. Dawn. Retrieved from
  58. Shahid, J. (2013, August 19). Climate experts: Change strategy now. Dawn.
  59. Shaikh, S., & Tunio, S. (2013, November 12). Flood-prone Pakistan struggles for influence at UN climate talks. Retrieved from Thomson Reuters Foundation website:
  60. Sikander, T., Saeed Khan, R., Khan, S., & Ebrahim, S. T. (2014, September 6). Is Pakistan ready for a monsoon catastrophe? Dawn. Retrieved from
  61. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. (2008–2009). Position paper on Copenhagen climate change negotiations. Retrieved from
  62. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. (2011a). Climate change, natural calamities and governance crises in Pakistan [Research Programme]. Retrieved from
  63. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. (2011b). Climate change driven migration [Research Programme]. Retrieved from
  64. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. (2011c). Institutional arrangements for climate change in Pakistan. Retrieved from
  65. Sustainable Development Policy Institute. (2013). Research programme environment. Retrieved from
  66. UN-Habitat Pakistan. (n.d.). Pakistan settlements flood recovery project. Retrieved from
  67. United Nations Development Program Pakistan. (n.d.). Reducing risks & vulnerabilities from glacial lake outburst floods. Retrieved from
  68. United Nations Development Program Pakistan. (2013a). Community conserves natural resources to protect its future. Retrieved from
  69. United Nations Development Program Pakistan (2013b). In-depth accelerating adaptation to climate change. Retrieved from
  70. United Nations Development Program Pakistan. (2013c). Sustainable land management to combat desertification. Retrieved from
  71. Whitmarsh, L. E. (2005). A study of public understanding of and response to climate change in the south of England. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Bath, UK.Google Scholar
  72. Winiger, M., Gumpert, M., & Yamout, H. (2005). Karakoram-Hindu Kush-Western Himalaya: Assessing high-altitude water resources. Hydrological Processes, 19(12), 2329–2338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. World Bank. (2015a). Data: Pakistan. Retrieved from
  74. World Bank. (2015b). Rural population (% of total population). Retrieved from
  75. World Meteorological Organization. (2011, August 31). Press release #294. Retrieved from
  76. World Wildlife Fund Pakistan. (n.d.). WWF Pakistan. Retrieved from
  77. Xu, J., Grumbine, R. E., Shrestha, A., Eriksson, M., Yang, X., Wang, Y., et al. (2009). The melting Himalayas: Cascading effects of climate change on water, biodiversity, and livelihoods. Conservation Biology, 23, 520–530.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yusuf, S. (2008, October 21). Pakistan launches task force on climate change. Retrieved June 26, 2014, from
  79. Yusuf, H. (2009). Old and new media: Converging during the Pakistan emergency (March 2007–February 2008). Retrieved from MIT Center for Civic Media website:
  80. Yousaf, Z. (2012). Private news channels: Altering the political perception of Pakistani people. Academic Research International, 3(3), 426–439.Google Scholar
  81. Yousaf, Z., Huma, Z., & Ali, E. (2013). Reporting of environmental issues in Pakistani press. World Applied Sciences Journal, 28(6), 829–834.Google Scholar
  82. Yu, W., Yang, Y.-C., Savitsky, A., Alford, D., Brown, C., Wescoat, J., et al. (2013). The Indus Basin of Pakistan: The impacts of climate risks on water and agriculture. Washington, DC: The World Bank.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Zaheer, K., & Colom, A. (2014). Climate Asia: Pakistan—How the people of Pakistan live with climate change and what communication can do. Retrieved from BBC website:

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of MelbourneParkvilleAustralia

Personalised recommendations