Basic Neuroanatomy and Neurophysiology of the Lower Urinary Tract

  • Lauren Tennyson
  • Christopher J. Chermansky


The lower urinary tract (LUT) serves to store and periodically eliminate urine through complex mechanisms coordinated by local, spinal, and brain circuits. These neural circuits coordinate the activities of the bladder and urethra, alternating between two primary modes of operation: urine storage and urine elimination. This chapter will review normal autonomic and somatic neural connections within the LUT. Discrete neurologic lesions typically result in predictable patterns of LUT dysfunction, and the pathophysiology of the neurologic disorders commonly affecting LUT function will also be described in this chapter. Lastly, we will review the landmark basic science studies and relevant animal models that have expanded our understanding of neuromodulation techniques on the LUT over the past decade.


Lower urinary tract (LUT) Neurogenic dysfunction Neuromodulation Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) Pudendal nerve stimulation (PNS) 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical CenterPittsburghUSA
  2. 2.Department of UrologyUPMC Magee Womens HospitalPittsburghUSA

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