Skip to main content

Oceanographers, Surveillance, and Defence Research

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Ocean Science and the British Cold War State
  • 232 Accesses

Abstract

The greatest use to which oceanography was put at the height of the Cold War was global ocean surveillance. For much of the 1950s and 1960s the direct role of the National Institute of Oceanography was to assist the Royal Navy in designing improved technologies and methodologies for anti-submarine warfare. This chapter uses a wide range of archival holdings, in view of the classification barrier within government records, and reveals the scientific history of British ocean surveillance efforts during the Cold War, charting the history of developments in Gibraltar and the North-east Atlantic, and the ultimate development of the SOSUS network.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Notes

  1. 1.

    Report for the Civil Lord, 17 August 1961, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  2. 2.

    Kirstie Macrakis, “Technophilic Hubris and Espionage Styles during the Cold War,” Isis 101:2 (2010): 378–385.

  3. 3.

    Signals Intelligence (SIGINT) is the interception of communications (signals), whether between people, or in the form of electronic signals not directly used in communication (see note 5.).

  4. 4.

    Richard Aldrich, “British Intelligence and the Anglo-American ‘Special Relationship’ during the Cold War,” Review of International Studies 24:3 (1998): 331.

  5. 5.

    ELINT or electronic signals intelligence refers to the monitoring of signals not used for communications.

  6. 6.

    As this book shows, Deacon repeatedly returned to areas of oceanographic study that concerned the detection of vessels, from his war work (Chap. 2) to his formation of the research priorities of the institute (Chap. 3) to the use of acoustic instruments during the IGY (Chap. 4).

  7. 7.

    See Jeffrey A. Engel, Cold War at 30,000 Feet: The Anglo-American Fight for Aviation Supremacy (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007): 17–52; Alan P. Dobson, Anglo-American Relations in the Twentieth Century: Of friendship, conflict and the rise and decline of superpowers (London: Routledge, 1995).

  8. 8.

    W.P. Snyder, The Politics of British Defence Policy (Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1964): 29 [my italics].

  9. 9.

    Vice Chief of the Naval Staff to Flag Officer (Senior Royal Navy Commander), Scotland, 15 August 1952, ADM 1/28093, TNA (London).

  10. 10.

    Eric Grove, Vanguard to Trident: British Naval Policy since World War II (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987): 211. See also M. Dockrill, British Defence since 1945 (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 1988): 68.

  11. 11.

    On ONR funding to US oceanographic institutions, see Gary E. Weir, An Ocean in Common. American Naval Officers, Scientists, and the Ocean Environment (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2001) and Jacob D. Hamblin, Oceanographers and the Cold War: Disciples of Marine Science (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005).

  12. 12.

    Stephen Twigge, Edward Hampshire, Graham Macklin, British Intelligence Secrets, Spies and Sources, (London: TNA, 2009): 157.

  13. 13.

    Following the Portland Spy Scandal this establishment was consolidated into the larger, Admiralty Underwater Weapons Establishment (AUWE), which combined the Underwater Detection Establishment, Torpedo Experimental Establishment, Underwater Launching Establishment, in 1961. See Tom Wright, “Aircraft Carriers and Submarines: Naval R&D in Britain in the Mid-Cold War”, in Cold War Hot Science: Applied Research in Britain’s Defence Laboratories 1945–1990, ed. Robert Bud and Phillip Gummett (London: Science Museum, 1999): 153–4.

  14. 14.

    Jeffrey T. Richelson and Desmond Ball, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperations between the UKUSA Countries- the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (London: Unwin Hyman, 1990): 200.

  15. 15.

    Hamblin, Oceanographers and the Cold War, xvii-xix. See also Simone Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research 1959–1973,” Centaurus 54:3 (2012): 205–231. On the test ban treaty see Vojtech Mastney, “The 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: A Missed Opportunity for Détente?,” Journal of Cold War Studies 10:1 (2008): 3–25; Glenn T. Seaborg, Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Test Ban (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981).

  16. 16.

    Hamblin, Oceanographers and the Cold War, 264–5. On big science, see the introduction and Peter Galison, “The Many Faces of Big Science,” in Peter Galison, Bruce Hevly, Big Science: The Growth of Large Scale Research (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992).

  17. 17.

    Norman Polmar and K.J. Moore, Cold War Submarines: The design and construction of US and Soviet Submarines (Washington: Potomac Books, 2004): 107–111.

  18. 18.

    Graham Spinardi, From Polaris to Trident: The Development of US Fleet Ballistic Missile Technology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994); Maggie Mort, Building the Trident Network: A Study of the Enrolment of People, Knowledge and Machines (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002); Richard Crossman, The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister: Volume Two (London: Hamish Hamilton & Jonathan Cape, 1976): 619–620; Wright, “Aircraft Carriers and Submarines,”147–183.

  19. 19.

    Sherry Sontag, Christopher Drew, Annette Lawrence Drew, Blind Man’s Bluff: the Untold Story of Cold War Submarine Espionage (London: Hutchinson, 1999): 46–53; Desmond Ball, “Nuclear War at Sea,” International Security 10:3 (1985) 3–31; Barry Nalebuff, “Brinkmanship and Nuclear Deterrence: The Neutrality of Escalation,” Conflict Management and Peace Science 9:2 (1986): 19–23.

  20. 20.

    Michael A. Dennis, “Earthly Matters: On the Cold War and the Earth Sciences,” Social Studies of Science 33:5 (2003): 811–812; Naomi Oreskes, “A Context of Motivation: US Navy Oceanographic Research and the Discovery of Sea-Floor Hydrothermal Vents,” Social Studies of Science 33:5 (2003): 697–742.

  21. 21.

    Peter Gold, A Stone in Spain’s Shoe: The Search for a Solution to the Problem of Gibraltar (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1994): 3–4; Kent E. Calder, Embattled Garrisons: Comparative Base Politics and American Globalism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010): 11.

  22. 22.

    Jeremey Black, The British Seaborne Empire (London: Yale University Press, 2004): 242 and 356; Tillman Nechtman, “‘…for it was founded upon a Rock’: Gibraltar and the Purposes of Empire in the Mid-Nineteenth Century,” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 39:5 (2011): 749–770.

  23. 23.

    Donald C. Watt, Succeeding John Bull: America in Britain’s Place 1900–1975 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984): 12; Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administrations, and the Cold War (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992): 123, 171, 273.

  24. 24.

    Egya N. Sangmuah, “Eisenhower and Containment in North Africa, 1956–60,” Middle East Journal 44:1 (1990): 76–91; Matthew Connelly, “Rethinking the Cold War and Decolonization: the Grand Strategy of the Algerian War for Independence,” International Journal of the Middle East 33:2 (2001): 221–245. See also Peter Hahn, The United States, Great Britain, Egypt, 1945–1956: Strategy and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991); Tony Chafer, The End of Empire in French West Africa: France’s Successful Decolonization? (Oxford: Berg, 2002).

  25. 25.

    John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy during the Cold War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005): 179–180.

  26. 26.

    Record of a meeting between Flag Officer, Gibraltar, and Spanish Minister of Marine, 2 April 1963, FO 371/169501, TNA (London).

  27. 27.

    Ennio Di Nolfo, “The Cold War and the Transformation of the Mediterranean,” in The Cambridge History of the Cold War, ed. Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010): Vol. 2, 238–57.

  28. 28.

    Harriet Critchley, “Polar Deployment of Soviet Submarines,” International Journal 39:4 (1984): 836–7.

  29. 29.

    Note by George Symonds, Director of Undersurface Warfare, 21 December 1960, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  30. 30.

    There are no official government documents that have been declassified which confirm its existence. However, several works claim that a SOSUS line west of Gibraltar exists: John Craven, The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea (New York: Touchstone, 2002) 93; Peter Huchthausen and Alexandre Sheldon-Duplaix, Hide and Seek: The Untold Story of Cold War Naval Espionage (London: John Wiley, 2009): 113; W. Craig Reed, Red November: Inside the Secret US-Soviet Submarine War (London: Harper Collins, 2010): 253–4; Sherry Sontag, Chistopher Drew, Blind Man’s Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage (London: Harper Collins, 1998): 40–1, 68, 122; Robert E. Harkavy, Bases Abroad: The Global Foreign Military Presence (Stockholm: SIPRI, 1989) 193–4; William E. Burrows, Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security (New York: Random House, 1988): 177–181; Jeffrey T. Richelson, Desmond Ball, The Ties That Bind: Intelligence Cooperations between the UKUSA Countries- the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand (London, Unwin Hyman, 1990): 198–202.

  31. 31.

    The Admiralty however continued to promote the study of passive sonar systems. It simply halted work on arrays of hydrophones. The demise of Project Corsair was divulged to non-scientific staff in the Admiralty only in 1968.

  32. 32.

    “Any form of detection device needs a weapon to back it up.” Note by George Symonds, Directory of Undersurface Warfare, 21 December 1960, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  33. 33.

    The system was known as ASDIC; Straits of Gibraltar Anti-Submarine Group, Minutes of Meeting held in Washington, 5 February 1960, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  34. 34.

    Flag Officer, Gibraltar, to Commander-in-Chief, Mediterranean, 11 July 1960, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  35. 35.

    In 1959 the CANUKUS group (made up of the three main NATO powers: Canada, the UK, and the US) commissioned a study of surveillance measures in Gibraltar; Minutes of Informal Meeting in Washington, 5 February, 1960, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  36. 36.

    James B. Soloman, The Multilateral Force: America’s Nuclear Solution for NATO (1960–1965) (Annapolis: US Naval Academy, 1999).

  37. 37.

    Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys,” 214.

  38. 38.

    For more on the formation of the NATO sub-committee, see Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys,” 211–212.

  39. 39.

    Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys”.

  40. 40.

    Hamblin, Oceanographers and the Cold War, 66, 80, 88.

  41. 41.

    Captain Superintendent, AUWE to George Symonds, 23 November 1960, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  42. 42.

    See Memo by A. G. Draper, Military Branch II, and Admiralty for T.A.K. Elliott, Foreign Office, 16 March 1964, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London); and Statement by Sir B. Burrows at the North Atlantic Council on 29 March, 1968, [available at www.gib-action.com/docs/nato1968.htm].

  43. 43.

    Note by George Symonds, Director of Undersurface Warfare, 21 December 1960, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  44. 44.

    Correspondence by Director of Plans, 3 January 1961; Director of General Weapons, 3 February 1961; Director of Undersurface Warfare, 20 March 1961, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  45. 45.

    Note, Director of Undersurface Warfare, 20 March 1961, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  46. 46.

    Note by Nigel Abercrombie, USS, 26 May 1961, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  47. 47.

    Admiral J. Peter L. Reid, Report for the Civil Lord of the Admiralty Ian Orr-Ewing, 17 August 1961, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  48. 48.

    Ibid.

  49. 49.

    Note from Department of National Defence Royal Canadian Navy communicated through the Senior Naval Liaison Officer (British Defence Liaison Staff), 23 March 1962, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  50. 50.

    Memo by Vice Admiral A.B. Cole, Chief of Allied Staff – NATO Headquarters, Allied Forces Mediterranean, Malta, 23 April 1963, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  51. 51.

    On ELINT trawlers see Harkavy, Bases Abroad, 208–10.

  52. 52.

    Memo from NATO Headquarters, Allied Forces Mediterranean, Malta, (sgn. Vice Admiral, A.B. Cole), 23 April 1963, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  53. 53.

    In the “Royal New Zealand Navy”, at: http://nzetc.victoria.ac.nz/tm/scholarly/tei-WH2Navy-c29.html. Cole had served during the Second World War as commander of an anti-submarine destroyer. During the 1950s he rose within the Admiralty, serving as Assistant Chief of Naval Staff 1959–62 before taking up a NATO role.

  54. 54.

    Memo from NATO Headquarters, Allied Forces Mediterranean, Malta, (sgn. Vice Admiral, A.B. Cole), 23 April 1963, ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  55. 55.

    Ibid.

  56. 56.

    J. Bourgoin, “Henri Lacombe (33), 1913–2000. In Memoriam”, La Jaune et la Rouge (February 2001): 562.

  57. 57.

    Simone Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research 1959–1973,” Centaurus 54:3 (2012): 212.

  58. 58.

    Henri Lacombe, “Nato and Oceanography. Statement by Professor Lacombe”, NATO, Annex H to AC/141-R/6: 3.

  59. 59.

    Memo from NATO Headquarters, Allied Forces Mediterranean, Malta, April 23, 1963 (sgn. Vice Admiral, A.B. Cole), ADM 1/29275, TNA (London).

  60. 60.

    This remains the case; see Sam Robinson and Lino Camprubí, “Ocean Science, Gibraltar and geopolitics – then and now,” Science Blogs – Political Science (blog), the Guardian, http://www.theguardian.com/science/political-science/2013/oct/04/ocean-science-gibraltar-geopolitics/.

  61. 61.

    For a general discussion of Franco’s role in sharing science and power, see Nestor Herran and Xavier Roqué, “An Autarkic Science: Physics, Culture and Power in Franco’s Spain,” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 43:2 (2013): 202–235.

  62. 62.

    Letter from Amirante Jefe del E. M. de la Armada to Sub-secetario del Ministerio Asuntos Exterores, on “Investigaciones Oceanográficas en el Estrecho de Gibrlatar en colaboración con Francia en su aspecto military”, Madrid, 12 May 1958, MAE, Leg. R. 5334, Exp.20.

  63. 63.

    Record of a meeting between Flag Officer, Gibraltar, and Minister of Marine, Spain, 2 April 1963, FO 371/169501, TNA (London); Foreign Office’s earlier stances are discussed in the file, “US & Spanish attitudes to Gibraltar 1952,” FO 371/102020, TNA (London).

  64. 64.

    Record of a meeting between Flag Officer, Gibraltar, and Minister of Marine, Spain, 2 April 1963, FO 371/169501.

  65. 65.

    Lino Camprubí and Sam Robinson,“A Gateway to Ocean Circulation: Surveillance and Sovereignty at Gibraltar,” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 46:4 (2016) 429–459.

  66. 66.

    Ibid.

  67. 67.

    Ibid.

  68. 68.

    Ibid.

  69. 69.

    Note by of N.J.A. Cheetham, FO Permanent Undersecretary, 2 April 1963, FO 371/16950, TNA (London).

  70. 70.

    See CO 926/2061, TNA (London).

  71. 71.

    Fernando María Castiella [Spanish Minister of Foreign Affairs], “Borrador de la introducción del Libro Rojo”, April 1965, ACA, Leg. 69 Rel. 1 n15/19: 57.

  72. 72.

    Fernando María Castiella to Spanish Minister of Navy, San Sebastián, 26 August 1967, ACA, Leg 70. Rel 1. 15/19. 2, Carpeta 2. 213/220.

  73. 73.

    Harkavy, Strategic Basing, 127–129.

  74. 74.

    On this see Gunnar Ellingsen, “Varme havstrømmer og kald krig: ‘Bergensstrømmåleren’ og vitenskapen om havstrømmer fra 1870-årene til 1960-åreme [Warm ocean currents and the cold war: the Bergen current meter and the science of ocean currents from the 1870s to the 1960s]” (PhD dissertation, Universitetet I Bergen, 2012).

  75. 75.

    Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys,” 215.

  76. 76.

    On Swallow see W. John Gould, “From Swallow Floats to Argo – The Development of Neutrally Buoyant Floats,” Deep-Sea Research 52:3 (2005): 529–543 [available at: www.argo.ucsd.edu/Gould_Float_history.pdf, accessed 10/09/2013]. See also John Swallow, interview by Margaret Deacon, 1994 [also available at http://www.argo.ucsd.edu/Gould_Float_history.pdf]; Henry Charnock, “John Crossley Swallow,” Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society 43 (1997): 505–519.

  77. 77.

    Gould, “From Swallow floats to Argo,” 530.

  78. 78.

    J.B. Tait, (ed.), The Iceland-Faroe Ridge International “Overflow” Expedition, May-June, 1960: An Investigation of Cold, Deep Water Overspill into the North-Eastern Atlantic Ocean, ICES Report 157 [available at: http://ocean.ices.dk/Project/OV60/RPV157.pdf, last accessed 10/09/2013].

  79. 79.

    Helen M. Rozwadowski, The Sea Knows no Boundaries: A Century of Marine Science under ICES, (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004): 133–4.

  80. 80.

    Hamblin, Oceanographers and the Cold War, 233.

  81. 81.

    Ibid, 232–4.

  82. 82.

    Minutes of Meeting, 3 September 1962, Working Group on Oceanography, CAB 124/2170, TNA (London).

  83. 83.

    Ryurik A. Ketov, “The Cuban Missile Crisis as Seen Through a Periscope,” The Journal of Strategic Studies 28:2 (2005): 217–231; Geoff Till, “Holding the Bridge in Troubled Times: The Cold War and the Navies of Europe,” The Journal of Strategic Studies 28:2 (2005): 309–337.

  84. 84.

    Norman Friedman, Seapower as Strategy: Navies and National Interests (Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2001): 58.

  85. 85.

    Head of Home NAVAL, Note on UK Participation in SOSUS, 28 December 1967, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  86. 86.

    Visit of Team to naval facility, Lewis, Delaware, and Norfolk SOSUS evaluation centre, June 1967, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  87. 87.

    Oceanographic Research Committee Position Paper, UK Participation in the SOSUS System, draft by DUSW (N), undated, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  88. 88.

    Head of Home NAVAL, Note on UK Participation in SOSUS, 28 December 1967, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  89. 89.

    ORC Position Paper, UK Participation in the SOSUS System, draft by DUSW (N), undated, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  90. 90.

    Ibid.

  91. 91.

    AUWE Working Party Report, ‘Research and Development Implications’ (Annex 8), September 1967, in UK Participation in the SOSUS System, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  92. 92.

    AUWE Working Party Report, ‘Political Considerations’ (Annex 4), September 1967, in UK Participation in the SOSUS System, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  93. 93.

    AUWE Working Party Report, ‘Financial Considerations’ (Annex 3), September 1967, in UK Participation in the SOSUS System, DEFE 69/526, TNA (London).

  94. 94.

    Ibid.

  95. 95.

    For a more detailed political history of Brawdy, see Charlie Whitham, “Bargaining over Brawdy, Negotiating the American Military Presence in Wales, 1971,” in Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges, ed. Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Glebov (Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2009):40–55.

  96. 96.

    Minute of the Minister for Defence, Lord Carrington, for the Prime Minister, 28 December 1970, PREM 15/291, TNA (London).

  97. 97.

    Anthony S. Laughton, “The Future of Oceanographic Research in the Light of the UN Convention,” in The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Impact and Implementation, ed. Edward Duncan Brown and Robin Rolf Churchill (Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1987): 388.

  98. 98.

    On the episode see Mitcehll B. Lerner, The Pueblo Incident. A Spy Ship and the Failure of American Foreign Policy (Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002); Frank Baldwin, “Patrolling the Empire: Reflections on the USS Pueblo,” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars, (Summer 1972): 54–75.

  99. 99.

    Instructions to ships ‘Operation CAIRNDUFF’, Shadowing of Russian ELINT Trawlers, 1962, ADM 1/28093, TNA (London).

  100. 100.

    John Krige, American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006): 4–14.

  101. 101.

    For more see Simone Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research, 1959–1973,” Centaurus 54:3 (2012): 215.

  102. 102.

    For a history of the fishery dispute see Carmel Finley, All the Fish in the Sea: Maximum Sustainable Yield and the Failure of Fisheries Management (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011).

References

  • Aldrich, Richard. “British Intelligence and the Anglo-American ‘Special Relationship’ During the Cold War.” Review of International Studies 24 (1998): 331–351.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baldwin, Frank. “Patrolling the Empire: Reflections on the USS Pueblo.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars (Summer 1972): 54–75.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ball, Desmond. “Nuclear War at Sea.” International Security 10 (1985): 3–31.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Black, Jeremey. The British Seaborne Empire. London: Yale University Press, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bourgoin, J. “Henri Lacombe (33), 1913–2000. In Memoriam.” La Jaune et la Rouge (February 2001).

    Google Scholar 

  • Burrows, William E. Deep Black: Space Espionage and National Security. New York: Random House, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  • Calder, Kent E. Embattled Garrisons: Comparative Base Politics and American Globalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Camprubí, Lino, Sam Robinson. “A Gateway to Ocean Circulation: Surveillance and Sovereignty at Gibraltar.” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 46 (2016): 429–459.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chafer, Tony. The End of Empire in French West Africa: France’s Successful Decolonization? Oxford: Berg, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Charnock, Henry. “John Crossley Swallow.” Biographical Memoirs of the Fellows of the Royal Society 43 (1997): 505–519.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Connelly, Matthew. “Rethinking the Cold War and Decolonization: The Grand Strategy of the Algerian War for Independence.” International Journal of the Middle East 33 (2001): 221–245.

    Google Scholar 

  • Craven, John. The Silent War: The Cold War Battle Beneath the Sea. New York: Touchstone, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Critchley, Harriet. “Polar Deployment of Soviet Submarines.” International Journal 39 (1984): 828–865.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crossman, Richard. The Diaries of a Cabinet Minister: Volume Two. London: Hamish Hamilton & Jonathan Cape, 1976.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dennis, Michael A. “Earthly Matters: On the Cold War and the Earth Sciences.” Social Studies of Science 33 (2003): 809–819.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dobson, Alan P. Anglo-American Relations in the Twentieth Century: Of Friendship, Conflict and the Rise and Decline of Superpowers. London: Routledge, 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dockrill, M. British Defence Since 1945. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 1988.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ellingsen, Gunnar. “Varme havstrømmer og kald krig: ‘Bergensstrømmåleren’ og vitenskapen om havstrømmer fra 1870-årene til 1960-åreme [Warm Ocean Currents and the Cold War: The Bergen Current Meter and the Science of Ocean Currents from the 1870s to the 1960s].” PhD diss., Universitetet I Bergen, 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  • Engel, Jeffrey A. Cold War at 30,000 Feet: The Anglo-American Fight for Aviation Supremacy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2007.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Finley, Carmel. All the Fish in the Sea: Maximum Sustainable Yield and the Failure of Fisheries Management. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 2011.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Friedman, Norman. Seapower as Strategy: Navies and National Interests. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gaddis, John Lewis. Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of American National Security Policy During the Cold War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  • Galison, Peter. “The Many Faces of Big Science.” In Big Science: The Growth of Large Scale Research. Edited by Peter Galison and Bruce Hevly. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gold, Peter. A Stone in Spain’s Shoe: The Search for a Solution to the Problem of Gibraltar. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1994.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Gould, W. John. “From Swallow Floats to Argo – The Development of Neutrally Buoyant Floats.” Deep-Sea Research 52 (2005): 529–543.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grove, Eric. Vanguard to Trident: British Naval Policy Since World War II. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hahn, Peter. The United States, Great Britain, Egypt, 1945–1956: Strategy and Diplomacy in the Early Cold War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1991.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamblin, Jacob D. Oceanographers and the Cold War: Disciples of Marine Science. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harkavy, Robert E. Bases Abroad: The Global Foreign Military Presence. Stockholm: SIPRI, 1989.

    Google Scholar 

  • Herran, Nestor, Xavier Roqué. “An Autarkic Science: Physics, Culture and Power in Franco’s Spain.” Historical Studies in the Natural Sciences 43 (2013): 202–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huchthausen, Peter, Alexandre Sheldon-Duplaix. Hide and Seek: The Untold Story of Cold War Naval Espionage. London: John Wiley, 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ketov, Ryurik A. “The Cuban Missile Crisis as Seen Through a Periscope.” The Journal of Strategic Studies 28 (2005): 217–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krige, John. American Hegemony and the Postwar Reconstruction of Science in Europe. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2006.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laughton, Anthony S. “The Future of Oceanographic Research in the Light of the UN Convention.” In The UN Convention on the Law of the Sea: Impact and Implementation. Edited by Edward Duncan Brown and Robin Rolf Churchill. Honolulu: University of Hawaii, 1987.

    Google Scholar 

  • Leffler, Melvyn P. A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administrations, and the Cold War. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lerner, Mitchell B. The Pueblo Incident: A Spy Ship and the Failure of American Foreign Policy. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Macrakis, Kirstie. “Technophilic Hubris and Espionage Styles During the Cold War.” Isis 101 (2010): 378–385.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mastney, Vojtech. “The 1963 Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: A Missed Opportunity for Détente?” Journal of Cold War Studies 10 (2008): 3–25.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mort, Maggie. Building the Trident Network: A Study of the Enrolment of People, Knowledge and Machines. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nalebuff, Barry. “Brinkmanship and Nuclear Deterrence: The Neutrality of Escalation.” Conflict Management and Peace Science 9 (1986): 19–23.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nechtman, Tillman. “‘…for It Was Founded Upon a Rock’: Gibraltar and the Purposes of Empire in the Mid-Nineteenth Century.” The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 39 (2011): 749–770.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nolfo, Ennio Di. “The Cold War and the Transformation of the Mediterranean.” In The Cambridge History of the Cold War. Edited by Melvyn P. Leffler and Odd Arne Westad. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Oreskes, Naomi. “A Context of Motivation: US Navy Oceanographic Research and the Discovery of Sea-Floor Hydrothermal Vents.” Social Studies of Science 33 (2003): 697–742.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Polmar, Norman, K.J. Moore. Cold War Submarines: The Design and Construction of US and Soviet Submarines. Washington: Potomac Books, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Reed, W. Craig. Red November: Inside the Secret US-Soviet Submarine War. London: Harper Collins, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Richelson, Jeffrey T., Desmond Ball. The Ties that Bind: Intelligence Cooperations Between the UKUSA Countries- the United Kingdom, the United States of America, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. London: Unwin Hyman, 1990.

    Google Scholar 

  • Robinson, Sam, Lino Camprubí. “Ocean Science, Gibraltar and Geopolitics – Then and Now.” Science Blogs – Political Science (Blog). The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com/science/political-science/2013/oct/04/ocean-science-gibraltar-geopolitics/.

  • Rozwadowski, Helen M. The Sea Knows No Boundaries: A Century of Marine Science Under ICES. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sangmuah, Egya N. “Eisenhower and Containment in North Africa, 1956–60.” Middle East Journal 44 (1990): 76–91.

    Google Scholar 

  • Seaborg, Glenn T. Kennedy, Khrushchev and the Test Ban. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981.

    Google Scholar 

  • Snyder, W.P. The Politics of British Defence Policy. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 1964.

    Google Scholar 

  • Soloman, James B. The Multilateral Force: America’s Nuclear Solution for NATO (1960–1965). Annapolis: US Naval Academy, 1999.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sontag, Sherry, Chistopher Drew. Blind Man’s Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. London: Harper Collins, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Spinardi, Graham. From Polaris to Trident: The Development of US Fleet Ballistic Missile Technology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1994.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Till, Geoff. “Holding the Bridge in Troubled Times: The Cold War and the Navies of Europe.” The Journal of Strategic Studies 28 (2005): 309–337.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Turchetti, Simone. “Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research 1959–1973.” Centaurus 54 (2012): 205–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Twigge, Stephen, Edward Hampshire, Graham Macklin. British Intelligence Secrets, Spies and Sources. London: The National Archives, 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  • Watt, Donald C. Succeeding John Bull: America in Britain’s Place 1900–1975. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Weir, Gary E. An Ocean in Common. American Naval Officers, Scientists, and the Ocean Environment. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Whitham, Charlie. “Bargaining Over Brawdy, Negotiating the American Military Presence in Wales, 1971.” In Military Bases: Historical Perspectives, Contemporary Challenges. Edited by Luís Rodrigues and Sergiy Glebov. Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2009.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wright, Tom. “Aircraft Carriers and Submarines: Naval R&D in Britain in the Mid-Cold War.” In Cold War Hot Science: Applied Research in Britain’s Defence Laboratories 1945–1990. Edited by Robert Bud and Phillip Gummett. London: Science Museum, 1999.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Robinson, S.A. (2018). Oceanographers, Surveillance, and Defence Research. In: Ocean Science and the British Cold War State. Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73096-7_5

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73096-7_5

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-73095-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-73096-7

  • eBook Packages: HistoryHistory (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics