Skip to main content

Oceanographers at War

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Ocean Science and the British Cold War State
  • 221 Accesses

Abstract

During the Second World War the need for closer working relationships between the Navy and science was demonstrated, and the wider belief that science was a necessary auxiliary to modern war was established. It is clear that the emerging group that would form the basis of the National Institute of Oceanography had close ties with military administrative patrons and understood their work as military-orientated ocean science. Using three case studies—the Hydrographic Office, anti-submarine warfare, and anti-sea mine warfare—the chapter argues that the Second World War provided the opportunity for key relationships to become established between leading ocean scientists, such as George Deacon, James Carruthers, and Edward Bullard, and leading military-scientific administrators.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Notes

  1. 1.

    Quoted and translated in Ramster, J., “Dr. J.N. Carruthers 24 November 1895–8 March 1973,” Journal du Counseil Permanent International pour l’Exploration de la Mer, 36 (1975): 103.

  2. 2.

    Sonar and echo-sounding systems were known in Britain as ASDIC. Although this is often referred to as an acronym with varying wording, its most likely that the term was coined by the Admiralty as nonsense intended to give away as little detail as possible about the device. The confusion probably stems from its first use in the House of Commons by Churchill in 1939. Hackmann, probably the most authoritative study on early ASW, states ‘The Oxford University Press was prompted on 11 December 1939 to ask the Admiralty about its etymology after Churchill used the term in the House of Commons. After a certain amount of inter-departmental discussion, they were told that the word was the acronym of Allied Submarine Detection Investigation Committee, “a body which was formed during the war of 1914–1918, and which organised much research and experiment for the detection of submarines.”’ However, no such committee exists in the WW1 Admiralty records. See Willem Hackmann, Seek & Strike: Sonar, Anti-submarine Warfare and the Royal Navy 1914–54 (London: HMSO, 1984): xxv.

  3. 3.

    Margaret Deacon, Scientists and the Sea 1650–1900: A Study of Marine Science (Aldershot: Routledge, 1971).

  4. 4.

    “Re-challenge the Oceans,” Nature (23 September 1920): 101–2.

  5. 5.

    Peder Roberts, The European Antarctic: Science and Strategy in Scandinavia and the British Empire (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011): 34–5; D. Graham Burnett, The Sounding of the Whale: Science and Cetaceans in the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012): 107–111.

  6. 6.

    For Discovery Committee see Roberts, The European Antarctic 31–52; for transfer of vessels to NIO see Chapter Three.

  7. 7.

    For more detailed history of Lowestoft, see A. J. Southward, “History of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom,” Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 49, no. 1 (1995): 465–6.

  8. 8.

    See Chapter Two, Anna Carlson-Hyslop, “An Anatomy of Storm Surge Science at Liverpool Tidal Institute 1919–1959: Forecasting, Practices of Calculation and Patronage,” (PhD diss., University of Manchester, 2010).

  9. 9.

    Thomas Wayland Vaughan, International Aspects of Oceanography: Oceanographic Data and Provisions for Oceanographic Research (Washington D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1937).

  10. 10.

    Vaughan was Director of the Scripps Institute of Oceanography until Harald Sverdrup replaced him in 1938.

  11. 11.

    Vaughan visited: England, Norway, Sweden, the Netherlands, France, Spain, Monaco, Germany, Denmark, Italy, Egypt, Siam (Thailand), French Indo-China (Vietnam), China, the Philippines, Japan, Hawaii, New Zealand, the East Indies, Australia, Malay (Malaysia).

  12. 12.

    Hamblin, Oceanographers and the Cold War, 30–1.

  13. 13.

    The challenges of cataloguing oceanographic data in the pre-digital age are outlined in Iouri Oliounie and Peter Pissierssens, “Oceanographic Data: from Paper to Pixels,” in Troubled Waters: Ocean Science and Governance, ed. Geoff Holland and David Pugh (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010): 167–186.

  14. 14.

    Sabine Höhler, “Depth Records and Ocean Volumes: Ocean Profiling by Sound Technology, 1850–1930,” History and Technology, 18 (2002): 119–154. Georg Wüst, “The Major Deep-Sea Expeditions and Research Vessels 1973–1960,” Progress in Oceanography, 2 (1964):1–52.

  15. 15.

    Fellowship of the Royal Society was the highest honour for a British scientist. Fellows were elected by their peers, so a naval officer’s election was rare and demonstrated the esteem in which Edgell was held within scientific circles.

  16. 16.

    Amongst many innovations Edgell was credited with replacing the lead line with the echo-sounder, and acquiring the funding to build the RRS Research, a wooden magnetic study vessel that was never launched due to the war. See George Deacon, “John Augustine Edgell. 1880–1962.” Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, 9 (1963): 87–90.

  17. 17.

    Margaret Deacon, “Steps Toward the Founding of NIO,” in Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography, ed. Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010).

  18. 18.

    George E.R. Deacon, “Obituary ‘James Norman Carruthers’”, Polar Record, 16 (1973): 874.

  19. 19.

    Memo ‘Projected British Oceanographical Institute’, J.N. Carruthers, 6th October 1947, GERD Papers, M3/2/7, NOC Library (Southampton).

  20. 20.

    Deacon, “James Norman Carruthers,” 874. Rear Admiral G. S. Ritchie, No Day Too Long – An Hydrographer’s Tale (Edinburgh: The Pentland Press, 1992): 129.

  21. 21.

    On the concept of scientific middlemen, between science and engineering, see Takehiko Hashimoto, “Leonard Bairstow as a Scientific Middleman: Early Aerodynamic Research on Airplane Stability in Britain, 1909–1920,” Historia Scientiarum, 17 (2007): 110 –112.

  22. 22.

    Memo ‘Projected British Oceanographical Institute’, J.N. Carruthers, 6 October 1947, GERD Papers, M3/2/7, NOC Library (Southampton).

  23. 23.

    Memo ‘Projected British Oceanographical Institute’, J.N. Carruthers, 6 October 1947, GERD Papers, M3/2/7, NOC Library (Southampton). NOC Library (Southampton).

  24. 24.

    Ibid.

  25. 25.

    By the end of the war Carruthers had been appointed Superintendent of the Oceanographic Branch of the Hydrographic Office, a branch created for him by the Navy. This continued after Carruthers became Assistant Director of the NIO under the leadership of a naval officer, Captain Ritchie, later Royal Navy Hydrographer. See Ritchie, No Day Too Long, 128–131.

  26. 26.

    Deacon, “James Norman Carruthers,” 874.

  27. 27.

    Memo ‘Projected British Oceanographical Institute’, J.N. Carruthers, 6 October 1947, GERD Papers, M3/2/7, NOC Library (Southampton).

  28. 28.

    Ibid.

  29. 29.

    Ibid.

  30. 30.

    A complete list of scientists working in the Hydrographic Office has been difficult to obtain, but Carruthers was not the only expert recruited into the department. Geographers were also in high demand; see Avril Maddrell, “The ‘Map Girls’. British women geographers’ war work, shifting gender boundaries and reflections on the history of geography,” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 33 (2008): 127–148.

  31. 31.

    See discussion of the cost savings of networks in Chap. 1, p. 9.

  32. 32.

    Boarding Card HMS Kingfisher [underlining in original], January 1940, GERD Papers, C1/1, NOC Library (Southampton).

  33. 33.

    Dominic Berry, “Genetics, Statistics, and Regulation at the National Institute of Agricultural Botany, 1919–1969,” (PhD diss., University of Leeds, 2014), Chapter four, ‘National Institute: Agricultural science in the Second World War, 1939–1955’. Provides an overview of British food supply problems during the conflict.

  34. 34.

    M. Fortun and S. S. Schweber, “Scientists and the Legacy of Second World War: The Case of Operations Research (OR),” Social Studies of Science 23 (1993): 595–642; Mary J. Nye, Blackett: Physics, War, and Politics in the Twentieth Century (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004): 75–85; Malcolm Llewellyn-Jones, “A Clash of Cultures: The Case for Large Convoys,” in Peter Hore, Patrick Blackett: Sailor, Scientist, Socialist (London: Routledge, 2004): 137–166.

  35. 35.

    Lawrence Sondhaus, The Great War at Sea: A Naval History of the First World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014): 241–277.

  36. 36.

    Stephen Broadberry and Peter Howlett, “The United Kingdom: ‘Victory at all costs’,” in The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison, ed. Mark Harrison (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998).

  37. 37.

    Malcolm Llewellyn-Jones, The Royal Navy and Anti-Submarine Warfare, 1917–49 (London: Routledge, 2006); Donald P. Steury, “Naval Intelligence, the Atlantic Campaign and the Sinking of the Bismarck: A Study in the Integration of Intelligence into the Conduct of Naval Warfare,” Journal of Contemporary History, 22 (1987): 209–233; Christopher M. Bell, The Royal Navy, Seapower and Strategy between the Wars (Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000).

  38. 38.

    Williem Dirk Hackmann, Seek & Strike: Sonar, Anti-Submarine Warfare and the Royal Navy 1914–54 (London: HMSO, 1984): 97–158; Williem Dirk Hackmann, “Underwater acoustics and the Royal Navy, 1893–1930,” Annals of Science 36 (1979): 255–278; Williem Dirk Hackmann, “Sonar research and naval warfare 1914–1954: A case study of a twentieth-century establishment science,” Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences, 16 (1986): 83–110.

  39. 39.

    Known in Britain as ASDIC.

  40. 40.

    Julie K. Peterson, Understanding Surveillance Technologies: Spy Devices, Privacy, History & Applications (New York: Auerbach Publications, 2007): 231.

  41. 41.

    Discussed below; for early history of ASDIC, see Hackmann, Seek & Strike, 73–96.

  42. 42.

    Hamblin, Oceanographers and the Cold War, 40–1.

  43. 43.

    Description of Fairlie Underwater Range, February 1942, ADM 259/571, TNA (London).

  44. 44.

    After the war this group established a sonar research centre in Norway as part of the Forsvarets Forskningsinstitutt (the Defence Research Institute); see Njølstad, O., Wicken, O., Kunnskap som våpen: forsvarets forskningsinstitutt 1946–1975 (Oslo: Tano Aschehoug, 1997): 36–37. Anti-submarine warfare: staff targets for research and developments, ADM 1/13711, TNA (London).

  45. 45.

    Simone Turchetti, “Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research 1959–1973,” Centaurus, 54 (2012): 205–231.

  46. 46.

    See ADM 1/13711, and Hackmann, Seek & Strike, 267–302.

  47. 47.

    George R. Ehrhardt, “Bathythermograph,” in Instruments of Science: An Historical Encyclopedia, ed. Robert Bud and Deborah Warner (London: Garland Publishing, 1998): 54–56.

  48. 48.

    Gary E. Weir, An Ocean in Common; American Naval Officers, Scientists, and the Ocean Environment (College Station: Texas A&M UP, 2001): 163.

  49. 49.

    Henry Wood had worked before the war at the Marine Laboratory of the Fishery Board for Scotland (Aberdeen), and was listed as HMS Osprey’s Senior Naturalist in the Navy List.

  50. 50.

    “Bathythermograph and ASDIC Observations on Convoy route to North Russia. HMS “Savage” October-November 1943”, Internal Report 169, H. Wood, ADM 259/614, TNA (London).

  51. 51.

    Ibid.

  52. 52.

    Ibid.

  53. 53.

    Ibid., Report dated 10 November, Wood returned on 11 November.

  54. 54.

    “Preliminary Report on the Effect of Temperature Gradients on the Accuracy of Depth Measurements by ASDIC apparatus,” 10 November 1943, G. Deacon and H. Wood, GERD Papers C1/5, NOC Library (Southampton).

  55. 55.

    James R. Fleming, “Sverre Petterseen, the Bergen School, and the Forecasts for D-Day,” Proceedings of the International Commission on History of Meteorology 1 (2004): 75–83.

  56. 56.

    “Bathythermograph and ASDIC Observations on Convoy route to North Russia. HMS “Savage” October-November 1943”, Internal Report 169, H. Wood, ADM 259/614, TNA (London).

  57. 57.

    Minute attached to Internal Report 169 by Captain Third Destroyer Flotilla: ‘data made available by bathythermograph observations “on the spot” will be of tremendous value in A/S operations and in this connection assistance in taking observations and keeping records will be afforded whenever practicable,’ ADM 259/614, TNA (London).

  58. 58.

    Richard Hammond, “British Policy on Total Maritime Warfare and the Anti-shipping Campaign in the Mediterranean, 1940–1944,” Journal of Strategic Studies 36:6 (2013): 789–814; Barbara Brooks Tomblin, “The Naval War in the Mediterranean,” in Thomas W. Zeiler, Daniel M. DuBois, A Companion to World War II (Edinburgh: Blackwell Publishing, 2013): 222–242.

  59. 59.

    Dick, R.M., “The Navy’s Part in the North African Campaign,” Royal United Services Institution Journal, 89:555 (1944): 261–274; Atilano, J.A., “The Transatlantic Essay Contest and the Planning Principles of the North African Campaign,” dtic online. URL: http://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=ADA583732 (accessed 9/12/14).

  60. 60.

    “First Mediterranean Patrol Report for period 13th–30th June 1943”, Commanding Officer HMS ‘Templar’, ADM 1/15410, TNA (London).

  61. 61.

    Weir, An Ocean in Common, 194.

  62. 62.

    Note, Commander-in-Chief Mediterranean, 13 August 1943, ADM 1/15410, TNA (London).

  63. 63.

    Minute from Admiral (Submarines), 4 September 1943, ADM 1/15410, TNA (London).

  64. 64.

    Ibid.

  65. 65.

    Ibid.

  66. 66.

    Draft of “Use of Bathythermograph in British Submarines,” GERD Papers, C1/6, NOC Library (Southampton).

  67. 67.

    Comments by USA on GERD authored, ASW Fairlie report 127 (10 May 1943), GERD Papers, C1/6, NOC Library (Southampton).

  68. 68.

    Hackmann, Seek & Strike, 261–3.

  69. 69.

    Weir, An Ocean in Common, 164–5.

  70. 70.

    Report 174: “Recent Developments in the Study of the effect of water conditions on ASDIC performance and their applications to submarine and anti-submarine Warfare,” December 1943, GERD Papers, C1/8, NOC Library (Southampton).

  71. 71.

    “The Battle of the Atlantic and Signals Intelligence: U-boat Situations and Trends, 1941–1945,” Publications of the Navy Records Society Vol.139 (Farnham, UK: Ashgate, 1998): 186. The post-war official Royal Navy history of the Battle of the Atlantic stated that in the eyes of the Royal Navy May 1943 was the turning point in the battle against merchant shipping losses in the North Atlantic; Naval Staff History (Second World War) “The defeat of the enemy attack on shipping 1939–1945; A study of Policy and operations.” (Admiralty, 1957): 228.

  72. 72.

    D.P. McKenzie, “Edward Crisp Bullard. 21 September 1907–3 April 1980,” Biogr. Mems Fell. R. Soc., (1987) 66–98; R.J. Howarth, “Bullard, Sir Edward Crisp (1907–1980),” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. URL: <http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/printable/30870> (accessed: 9/12/14).

  73. 73.

    Discussion at the Admiralty, 21 July 1938, ADM 1/19723, TNA (London).

  74. 74.

    John Carwood, “The Magnetic Crusade: Science and Politics in Early Modern Britain,” Isis, 70:4 (1979): 492–518.

  75. 75.

    Discussion at the Admiralty, 21 July 1938, ADM 1/19723, TNA (London).

  76. 76.

    Vening Meinesz, F.A., “Results of Maritime Gravity Research,” in Vaughan, International Aspects, 61–66.

  77. 77.

    Vaughan, International Aspects, 59–69.

  78. 78.

    Cambridge Annual Report 1939, ADM 1/19723, TNA (London).

  79. 79.

    Ibid.

  80. 80.

    Albert Beaumont Wood, “From the Board of Invention and Research to the Royal Naval Scientific Service,” Journal of the Royal Naval Scientific Service, 20:4 (July, 1965): 262.

  81. 81.

    W. Laurence Borrows, “Albert Beaumont Wood, O.B.E., DSc, Memorial Number,” Journal of the Royal Naval Scientific Service, 20:4 (July, 1965): 188. On the Admiralty Board of Invention and Research, see Roy M. MacLeod and Kay E. Andrews, “Scientific Advice in the War at Sea, 1915–1917: The Board of Invention and Research,” Journal of Contemporary History 6, no. 2 (1971): 3–40.

  82. 82.

    Albert Beaumont Wood, “Growth of Civilian Scientific Research in the Royal Navy, 1937–45,” ADM 218/7, TNA (London).

  83. 83.

    Wood, “From the Board of Invention and Research to the Royal Naval Scientific Service,” 263–4.

  84. 84.

    McKenzie, “Edward Crisp Bullard,” 75–6.

  85. 85.

    Albert Beaumont Wood, “Growth of Civilian Scientific Research in the Royal Navy, 1937–45,” ADM 218/7, TNA (London).

  86. 86.

    Edward C. Bullard, “Albert Beaumont Wood, O.B.E., DSc, Memorial Number,” Journal of the Royal Naval Scientific Service, 20:4 (July, 1965): 191.

  87. 87.

    Letter from E.C. Bullard to Professor Fowler, 9 June 1941, E3, CSAC 100.4.84, CAC. This episode is also highlighted in David Edgerton, Britain’s War Machine: Weapons, Resources and Experts in the Second World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011) 247.

  88. 88.

    Letter from E.C. Bullard to Professor Fowler, 9 June 1941, E3, CSAC 100.4.84, CAC.

  89. 89.

    This was a regular bone of contention in the Royal Navy during the war; see C.I. Hamilton, “Three cultures at the Admiralty, c.1800–1945: Naval Staff, the Secretariat, and the arrival of scientists,” Journal for Maritime Research, 16:1 (2014) 98.

  90. 90.

    Ibid.

  91. 91.

    Bullard to the Director of Naval Operational Research, 14 May 1945, ADM 1/19723, TNA (London).

  92. 92.

    “Recent Experiments by the Admiralty in Terrestrial Magnetism and Earth Currents,” 6 August 1948, ADM 204/861, TNA (London).

  93. 93.

    Albert Beaumont Wood, “Growth of Civilian Scientific Research in the Royal Navy, 1937–45,” ADM 218/7, TNA (London).

  94. 94.

    Howard S. Levie, Mine Warfare at Sea (Amsterdam: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1992): 110.

  95. 95.

    Dr. A. B. Wood, “The War Period Part V; From B.I.R. to R.N.S.S. 1937–1945,” ADM 218/7, TNA (London).

  96. 96.

    Ibid.

  97. 97.

    Anthony Laughton and Margaret Deacon, “The founding director: Sir George Deacon,” in Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography, ed. Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010): 37.

  98. 98.

    Michael Longuet -Higgins, “Group W at the Admiralty Reseach Laboratory,” in Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography, ed. Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010).

  99. 99.

    H for Hydrodynamics.

  100. 100.

    Fritz Ursell, section edited by Michael Longuet-Higgins, “Group W at the Admiralty Research Laboratory,” in Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography, ed. Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010): 42.

  101. 101.

    Jack Darbyshire, section edited by Michael Longuet-Higgins, “Group W at the Admiralty Research Laboratory,” in Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography, ed. Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe (Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010): 48.

  102. 102.

    Ibid.

  103. 103.

    “Oceanographical Group ARL” Memo 21 March 1945, GERD Papers, C6/2, NOC Library (Southampton).

  104. 104.

    “Oceanographical Group ARL” Memo 21 March 1945, GERD Papers, C6/2, NOC Library (Southampton).

  105. 105.

    British Naval Intelligence was one of the most important of the British intelligence-gathering services during the war, and was particularly focused on gathering scientific and technical information. See Roger Victor Jones, Most Secret War (London: Penguin, 2009); James M. Goodchild, “R.V. Jones and the Birth of Scientific Intelligence,” (PhD diss., University of Exeter, March 2013).

  106. 106.

    Letter N.Barber, 4 June 1945, GERD Papers, C6/2, NOC Library (Southampton).

  107. 107.

    Letter from Lt. Cameron R.N.V.R to Admiralty D.N.I. for ARL Wave Group, 24th June 1945, GERD Papers, C6/2, NOC Library (Southampton).

  108. 108.

    A copy was also published in the Transactions: American Geophysical Union; see Boehnecke, G., “German Oceanographic Work, 1934–1945,” Transactions: American Geophysical Union, 29:1 (1948): 59–68.

  109. 109.

    Letter from Wright to Cpt. Cooper, 21 September 1945, GERD Papers, C6/2, NOC Library (Southampton).

  110. 110.

    Letter N.J. Holter, US Navy Bureau, GERD Papers, C6/2, NOC Library (Southampton).

  111. 111.

    Ibid., GERD Papers, C6/2, NOC Library (Southampton).

  112. 112.

    Memorandum Columbus Iselin to Dr. A.N. Richards and Dr. Detlev W. Bronk,1 September 1948, Columbus O’Donnell Iselin papers, 1904–1971. MC-16, “Memo to Dr. A.N. Richards and Dr. Detlev Bronk.” Data Library and Archives, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

  113. 113.

    Henry B. Bigelow and W.T. Edmondson, Winds Waves at Sea, Breakers and Surf, (Washington D.C.: US Govt. Print, 1947). [DOI: https://doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.34810].

  114. 114.

    There were strong links between Soviet and American oceanographers at the time. As shown by Peder Roberts, the President of the American National Academy of Science had a longstanding relationship with Alexansder Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov, President of the AoS (Academy of Sciences of the USSR), who together established a framework for exchange despite the sensitive nature of the scientific work at the geophysics–military interface; see Peder Roberts, “Scientists and Sea Ice under Surveillance in the Early Cold War,” in Surveillance Imperative, ed. Turchetti, Roberts, 125–146.

  115. 115.

    “Wave Characteristics at Perranporth, 1946,” ADM 204/2097, TNA (London); “Generation of Ocean Waves and Swell, 1947,” ADM 213/575, TNA (London); “The effect of the rotation of the earth on the propagation of waves, 1947,” ADM 204/2106, TNA (London).

  116. 116.

    Norman Barber and Fritz Ursell, “Study of Ocean Swell,” Nature 159: 4032 (1947).

References

  • Barber, Norman, Fritz Ursell. “Study of Ocean Swell.” Nature. 8 February 1947.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bell, Christopher M. The Royal Navy, Seapower and Strategy Between the Wars. Redwood City, CA: Stanford University Press, 2000.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Berry, Dominic. “Genetics, Statistics, and Regulation at the National Institute of Agricultural Botany, 1919–1969.” PhD diss., University of Leeds, 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bigelow, Henry B., W.T. Edmondson. Winds Waves at Sea, Breakers and Surf. Washington D.C.: US Govt. Print, 1947.

    Google Scholar 

  • Boehnecke, Gunter. “German Oceanographic Work, 1934–1945.” Transactions: American Geophysical Union 29 (1948): 59–68.

    Google Scholar 

  • Borrows, W. Laurence. “Albert Beaumont Wood, O.B.E., DSc, Memorial Number.” Journal of the Royal Naval Scientific Service 20 (1965): 188.

    Google Scholar 

  • Broadberry, Stephen, Peter Howlett. “The United Kingdom: ‘Victory at All Costs’.” In The Economics of World War II: Six Great Powers in International Comparison. Edited by Mark Harrison. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bullard, Edward C. “Albert Beaumont Wood, O.B.E., DSc, Memorial Number.” Journal of the Royal Naval Scientific Service 20 (1965).

    Google Scholar 

  • Burnett, D. Graham. The Sounding of the Whale: Science and Cetaceans in the Twentieth Century. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carlson-Hyslop, Anna. “An Anatomy of Storm Surge Science at Liverpool Tidal Institute 1919–1959: Forecasting, Practices of Calculation and Patronage.” PhD diss., University of Manchester, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carwood, John. “The Magnetic Crusade: Science and Politics in Early Modern Britain.” Isis 70 (1979): 492–518.

    Google Scholar 

  • Darbyshire, Jack. “Group W at the Admiralty Research Laboratory.” In Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography. Edited by Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deacon, George E.R. “John Augustine Edgell. 1880–1962.” Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 9 (1963): 87–90.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deacon, George E.R. “Obituary ‘James Norman Carruthers’.” Polar Record 16 (1973): 873–875.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deacon, Margaret. Scientists and the Sea 1650–1900: A Study of Marine Science. Aldershot: Routledge, 1971.

    Google Scholar 

  • Deacon, Margaret. “Steps Toward the Founding of NIO.” In Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography. Edited by Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dick, R.M. “The Navy’s Part in the North African Campaign.” Royal United Services Institution Journal 89 (1944): 261–274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Edgerton, David. Britain’s War Machine: Weapons, Resources and Experts in the Second World War. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ehrhardt, George R. “Bathythermograph.” In Instruments of Science: An Historical Encyclopaedia. Edited by Robert Bud, Deborah Warner. London: Garland Publishing, 1998.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fleming, James R. “Sverre Petterseen, the Bergen School, and the Forecasts for D-Day.” Proceedings of the International Commission on History of Meteorology 1 (2004): 75–83.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fortun, M., S. S. Schweber. “Scientists and the Legacy of Second World War: The Case of Operations Research (OR).” Social Studies of Science 23 (1993): 595–642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodchild, James M. “R.V. Jones and the Birth of Scientific Intelligence.” PhD diss., University of Exeter, 2013. British Library EthOS (uk.bl.ethos.579986).

    Google Scholar 

  • Hackmann, Williem Dirk. “Underwater Acoustics and the Royal Navy, 1893–1930.” Annals of Science 36 (1979): 255–278.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hackmann, Williem Dirk. Seek & Strike: Sonar, Anti-Submarine Warfare and the Royal Navy 1914–54. London: HMSO, 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hackmann, Williem Dirk. “Sonar Research and Naval Warfare 1914–1954: A Case Study of a Twentieth-Century Establishment Science.” Historical Studies in the Physical and Biological Sciences 16 (1986): 83–110.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hamblin, Jacob D. Oceanographers and the Cold War: Disciples of Marine Science. Seattle: University of Washington, 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hamilton, C.I. “Three Cultures at the Admiralty, c.1800–1945: Naval Staff, the Secretariat, and the Arrival of Scientists.” Journal for Maritime Research 16, no.1 (2014):89–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hammond, Richard. “British Policy on Total Maritime Warfare and the Anti-Shipping Campaign in the Mediterranean, 1940–1944.” Journal of Strategic Studies 36 (2013): 789–814.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hashimoto, Takehiko. “Leonard Bairstow as a Scientific Middleman: Early Aerodynamic Research on Airplane Stability in Britain, 1909–1920.” Historia Scientiarum 17 (2007): 103 –120.

    Google Scholar 

  • Höhler, Sabine. “Depth Records and Ocean Volumes: Ocean Profiling by Sound Technology, 1850–1930.” History and Technology 18 (2002): 119–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howarth, R.J. “Bullard, Sir Edward Crisp (1907–1980).” Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Url: http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/printable/30870 (accessed: 9/12/14).

  • Jones, Roger Victor. Most Secret War. London: Penguin, 1977.

    Google Scholar 

  • Laughton, Anthony, Margaret Deacon. “The Founding Director: Sir George Deacon.” In Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography. Edited by Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Levie, Howard S. Mine Warfare at Sea. Amsterdam: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Llewellyn-Jones, Malcolm. “A Clash of Cultures: The Case for Large Convoys.” In Patrick Blackett: Sailor, Scientist, Socialist. Edited by Peter Hore. London: Routledge, 2004.

    Google Scholar 

  • Llewellyn-Jones, Malcolm. The Royal Navy and Anti-Submarine Warfare, 1917–49. London: Routledge, 2006.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Longuet-Higgins, Michael. “Group W at the Admiralty Reseach Laboratory.” In Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography. Edited by Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • MacLeod, Roy M., Kay E. Andrews. “Scientific Advice in the War at Sea, 1915–1917: The Board of Invention and Research.” Journal of Contemporary History 6 (1971): 3–40.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maddrell, Avril. “The ‘Map Girls’. British Women Geographers’ War Work, Shifting Gender Boundaries and Reflections on the History of Geography.” Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 33 (2008): 127–148.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McKenzie, D.P. “Edward Crisp Bullard. 21 September 1907–3 April 1980.” Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 33 (1987): 66–98.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nature. “Re-challenge the Oceans.” 30 September 1920.

    Google Scholar 

  • Njølstad, O., Wicken, O. Kunnskap som våpen: forsvarets forskningsinstitutt 1946–1975. Oslo: Tano Aschehoug, 1997.

    Google Scholar 

  • Nye, Mary J. Blackett: Physics, War, and Politics in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Oliounie, Iouri, Peter Pissierssens. “Oceanographic Data: From Paper to Pixels.” In Troubled Waters: Ocean Science and Governance. Edited by Geoff Holland and David Pugh. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Peterson, Julie K. Understanding Surveillance Technologies: Spy Devices, Privacy, History & Applications. New York: Auerbach Publications, 2007.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Ramster, J. “Dr. J.N. Carruthers 24 November 1895–8 March 1973.” Journal du Conseil Permanent International pour l’Exploration de la Mer 36 (1975): 101–105.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ritchie, Real Admiral, G. S. No Day Too Long – An Hydrographer’s Tale. Edinburgh: The Pentland Press, 1992.

    Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, Peder. The European Antarctic: Science and Strategy in Scandinavia and the British Empire. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, Peder. “Scientists and Sea Ice Under Surveillance in the Early Cold War.” In The Surveillance Imperative: Geosciences During the Cold War and Beyond. Edited by Simone Turchetti, Peder Roberts. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sondhaus, Lawrence. The Great War at Sea: A Naval History of the First World War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Southward, A. J. “History of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom.” Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen 49 (1995): 465–6.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Steury, Donald P. “Naval Intelligence, the Atlantic Campaign and the Sinking of the Bismarck: A Study in the Integration of Intelligence into the Conduct of Naval Warfare.” Journal of Contemporary History 22 (1987): 209–233.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tomblin, Barbara Brooks. “The Naval War in the Mediterranean.” In A Companion to World War II. Edited by Thomas W. Zeiler, Daniel M. DuBois. Edinburgh: Blackwell Publishing, 2013.

    Google Scholar 

  • Turchetti, Simone. “Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research 1959–1973.” Centaurus 54 (2012): 205–231.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ursell, Fritz. “Group W at the Admiralty Research Laboratory.” In Of Seas and Ships and Scientists: The Remarkable Story of the UK’s National Institute of Oceanography. Edited by Anthony Laughton, John Gould, M.J. ‘Tom’ Tucker, Howard Roe. Cambridge: Lutterworth Press, 2010.

    Google Scholar 

  • Vaughan, Thomas Wayland. International Aspects of Oceanography: Oceanographic Data and Provisions for Oceanographic Research. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1937.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Vening Meinesz, F.A. “Results of Maritime Gravity Research.” In International Aspects of Oceanography: Oceanographic Data and Provisions for Oceanographic Research. Edited by Thomas Wayland Vaughan. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, 1937.

    Google Scholar 

  • Weir, Gary E. An Ocean in Common; American Naval Officers, Scientists, and the Ocean Environment. College Station, TX: Texas A&M University Press, 2001.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wood, Albert Beaumont. “From the Board of Invention and Research to the Royal Naval Scientific Service.” Journal of the Royal Naval Scientific Service 20 (1965): 185–284.

    Google Scholar 

  • Wüst, Georg. “The Major Deep-Sea Expeditions and Research Vessels 1973–1960.” Progress in Oceanography 2 (1964): 1–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2018 The Author(s)

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Robinson, S.A. (2018). Oceanographers at War. In: Ocean Science and the British Cold War State. Palgrave Studies in the History of Science and Technology. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73096-7_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73096-7_2

  • Published:

  • Publisher Name: Palgrave Macmillan, Cham

  • Print ISBN: 978-3-319-73095-0

  • Online ISBN: 978-3-319-73096-7

  • eBook Packages: HistoryHistory (R0)

Publish with us

Policies and ethics