A Differential Evolution Algorithm to Develop Strategies for the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma

  • Manousos RigakisEmail author
  • Dimitra Trachanatzi
  • Magdalene Marinaki
  • Yannis Marinakis
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 10710)


This paper presents the application of the Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm in the most known dilemma in the field of Game Theory, the Prisoner’s Dilemma (PD) that simulates the selfish behavior between rational individuals. This study investigates the suitability of the DE to evolve strategies for the Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma (IPD), so that each individual in the population represents a complete playing strategy. Two different approaches are presented: a classic DE algorithm and a DE approach with memory. Their results are compared with several benchmark strategies. In addition, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) that have been implemented in the same framework are compared with the DE approaches. Overall, the strategies developed by DE outperform all the others. Also, it has been observed over iterations that when the DE algorithm is used the player manages to learn his opponent, therefore, DE converges with a quick and efficient manner.


Differential evolution Game theory Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma 



This work was partially financed by the School of Production Engineering and Management of the Technical University of Crete, as postgraduate research.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manousos Rigakis
    • 1
    Email author
  • Dimitra Trachanatzi
    • 1
  • Magdalene Marinaki
    • 1
  • Yannis Marinakis
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Production Engineering and ManagementTechnical University of CreteChaniaGreece

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