Advertisement

Emotionalise Me: Self-reporting and Arousal Measurements in Virtual Tourism Environments

  • Julia BeckEmail author
  • Roman Egger
Conference paper

Abstract

The technological developments regarding Virtual Reality (VR) are providing new opportunities for the tourism industry. This research investigates the application of fully-immersive VR systems in tourism marketing and analyses how it influences emotional responses and decision-making. During a laboratory experiment, subjective measurements were combined with physiological measurements of arousal. Study participants were exposed to a 360-degree destination marketing video, using either a head-mounted display (HMD) or a desktop-PC. Whereas the physiological parameters of heart rate and electrodermal activity showed a significant increase with the HMD-group, subjective evaluation of emotions and decision-making did not indicate any significant differences. These partly contradicting results suggest further investigation of emotions and arousal measurement, analysis and interpretation through field experiments. Nevertheless, from subjective opinions of participants and participant observations it could be concluded that VR as a marketing tool has the potential to increase positive emotions. Taken the enthusiasm and interest for VR in tourism into account, recommendations concerning investment in VR technology are given.

Keywords

Virtual reality Tourism marketing Emotional responses Arousal Electrodermal activity Heart rate Self-reporting measures 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank DI Michael Domhardt, research assistant of the MultiMedia Technology department of the University of Applied Sciences Salzburg, who developed the hard- and software tools applied in the laboratory experiment.

References

  1. Bigné, J.E., Andreu, L.: Emotions in segmentation: an empirical study. Ann. Tourism Res. 31(3), 682–696 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Boucsein, W., et al.: Publication recommendations for electrodermal measurements. Psychophysiology 49(8), 1017–1034 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bryman, A.: Social Research Methods, 5th edn. University Press, Oxford (2015)Google Scholar
  4. Cho, Y., Fesenmaier, D.R.: A new paradigm for tourism and electronic commerce: experience marketing using the virtual tour. In: Buhalis, D., Laws, E. (eds.) Tourism Distribution Channels. Practices, Issues and Transformations, pp. 351–370. Continuum, London (2001)Google Scholar
  5. Cho, Y., Wang, Y., Fesenmaier, D.R.: Searching for experiences: the web-based virtual tour in tourism marketing. J. Travel Tourism Mark. 12, 1–17 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cohen, J.: Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences, 2nd edn. Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ (1988)Google Scholar
  7. Cohen, J.: A power primer. ‎Psychol. Bull. 112(1), 155–159 (1992)Google Scholar
  8. Desai, P.R., Desai, P.N., Ajmera, K.D., Mehta, K.: A review paper on oculus rift-a virtual. Int. J. Eng. Trends Technol. (IJETT) 13(4), 175–179 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Disztinger, P., Schlögl, S., Groth, A.: Technology acceptance of virtual reality for travel planning. In: Schegg, R., Stangl, B. (eds.) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017, pp. 255–268. Springer, Cham (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dörner, R., Jung, B., Grimm, P., Broll, W., Göbel, M.: Einleitung. In: Dörner, R., Broll, W., Grimm, P., Jung, B. (eds.) Virtual und Augmented Reality (VR/AR), pp. 1–32. Springer, Berlin (2013)Google Scholar
  11. Egan, D., Brennan, S., Barrett, J., Qiao, Y., Timmerer, C., Murray, N.: An evaluation of heart rate and electrodermal activity as an objective QoE evaluation method for immersive virtual reality environments. In Quality of Multimedia Experience (QoMEX). 2016 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Technology for Education, pp. 3–8. Mumbai, India (2016, December 2–4)Google Scholar
  12. Felnhofer, A., et al.: Is virtual reality emotionally arousing? Investigating five emotion inducing virtual park scenarios. J. Hum. Comput. Stud. 82, 48–56 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Field, A.: Discovering Statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics, 4th edn. SAGE, London (2013)Google Scholar
  14. Field, A., Hole, G.: How to Design and Report Experiments. SAGE, London (2003)Google Scholar
  15. Goossens, C.: Tourism information and pleasure motivation. Ann. Tourism Res. 27(2), 301–321 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gutiérrez, M.A.A., Vexo, F., Thalmann, D.: Stepping into Virtual Reality. Springer, London (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guttentag, D.A.: Virtual reality: applications and implications for tourism. Tourism Manage. 31(5), 637–651 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Häusel, H.G.: Emotional boosting. Die hohe Kunst der Kaufverführung, 2nd edn. Haufe Gruppe, Freiburg (2012)Google Scholar
  19. Huang, Y.-C., Backman, S.J., Backman, K.F.: Exploring the impacts of involvement and flow experiences in second life on people’s travel intentions. J. Hospitality Tourism Technol. 3(1), 4–23 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huang, Y.C., Backman, S.J., Backman, K.F., Moore, D.: Exploring user acceptance of 3D virtual worlds in travel and tourism marketing. Tourism Manage. 36, 490–501 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huang, Y.C., Backman, K.F., Backman, S., Chang, L.L.: Exploring the implications of virtual reality technology. In Tourism marketing: an integrated research framework. Int. J. Tourism Res. 18(2), 116–128 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ijsselsteijn, W.A., Riva, G.: Being there: the experience of presence in mediated environments. In: Riva, G., Davide, F., Ijsselsteijn, W.A. (eds.) Being There: Concepts, Effects and Measurement of User Presence in Synthetic Environments, pp. 4–16. Ios Press, Netherlands (2003)Google Scholar
  23. Kim, G.J.: Designing Virtual Reality Systems: The Structured Approach. Springer, London (2005)Google Scholar
  24. Kim, J., Fesenmaier, D.R.: Measuring emotions in real time: Implications for tourism design. Inf. Commun. Technol. Tourism 2014, 1–11 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. Kroeber-Riel, W., Göppel-Klein, A.: Konsumentenverhalten, 10th edn. Verlag Franz Vahlen, München (2013)Google Scholar
  26. Kumar, D.P., Raju, K.V.: The role of advertising in consumer decision making. IOSR J. Bus. Manage. 14(4), 37–45 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. La Valle, S. M. (2016). Virtual Reality. Draft October 31. University Press, Cambridge. (Forthcoming)Google Scholar
  28. Lang, A.: Involuntary attention and physiological arousal evoked by structural features and emotional content in TV commercials. Commun. Res. 17(3), 275–299 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li, S., Scott, N., Walters, G.: Current and potential methods for measuring emotion in tourism experiences: a review. Curr. Issues Tourism 18(9), 805–827 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Li, S., Walters, G., Packer, J., Scott, N.: Using skin conductance and facial electromyography to measure emotional responses to tourism advertising. Curr. Issues Tourism 49(2), 1–23 (2016)Google Scholar
  31. Liu, J.C.-C., Chen, J.-S. J.: Virtual experiential marketing on online purchase intention. In: 11th Annual Conference of Asia Pacific Decision Sciences Institute Hong Kong, pp. 325–333 (2006, June 14–18)Google Scholar
  32. Lui, T.-W., Piccoli, G., Ives, B.: Marketing strategies in virtual worlds. DATA BASE Adv. Inf. Syst. 38(4), 77–80 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marchiori, E., Niforatos, E., Preto, L.: Measuring the media effects of a tourism-related virtual reality experience using biophysical data. In: Schegg, R., Stangl, B. (eds.) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2017, pp. 203–215. Springer, Cham (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Meehan, M., Razzaque, S., Insko, B., Whitton, M., Brooks, F.P.: Review of four studies on the use of physiological reaction as a measure of presence in stressful virtual environments. Appl. Psychophysiol. Biofeedback 30(3), 239–258 (2005)Google Scholar
  35. Micu, A.C., Plummer, J.T.: Measurable emotions: How television ads really work. How the patterns of reactions to commercials can demonstrate advertising effectiveness. J. Advert. Res. 50(2), 1–17 (2010)Google Scholar
  36. Munster, G., Jakel, T., Clinton, D., Murphy, E.: Next mega tech theme is virtual reality. Piper Jaffray Investment Research. Retrieved November 15, 2015, from https://piper2.bluematrix.com/sellside/EmailDocViewer?encrypt=052665f6-3484-40b7-b972bf9f38a57149&mime=pdf&co=Piper&id=reseqonly@pjc.com&source=mail (2015)
  37. Neuhofer, B., Buhalis, D., Ladkin, A.: Conceptualising technology enhanced destination experiences. J. Destination Mark. Manage. 1(1–2), 36–46 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pakanen, M., Arhippainen, L.: User experiences with web-based 3D virtual travel destination marketing portals—The need for visual indication of interactive 3D elements. In: Proceedings of the 26th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference on Designing Futures: the Future of Design. Sydney, Australia, pp. 430–439 (2014)Google Scholar
  39. Pantano, E., Servidio, R.: Pervasive environments for promotion of tourist destinations. In: D. Vrontis, Y. Weber, R. Kaufmann, S. Tarba (eds.) Managerial and Entrepreneurial Developments in the Mediterranean Area. 2nd Annual EuroMEd Conference of the EuroMed Academy of Business. Salerno, Italy, EuroMed Press, pp. 1336–1345, 26–28 Oct 2009Google Scholar
  40. Pawaskar, P., Goel, M.: A conceptual model: Multisensory marketing and destination branding. Proc. Econ. Finan. 11, 255–267 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Raab, G., Unger, F.: Marktpsychologie. Grundlagen und Anwendung, 2nd edn. Gabler Verlag, Wiesbaden (2005)Google Scholar
  42. Ravaja, N.: Contributions of psychophysiology to media research: review and recommendations. Media Psychol. 6(2), 193–235 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rooney, B., Benson, C., Hennessy, E.: The apparent reality of movies and emotional arousal: A study using physiological and self-report measures. Poetics 40(5), 405–422 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Santos, V., Ramos, P., Almeida, N.: Consumer behaviour in tourism: a content analysis of relationship between involvement and emotions. J. Tourism Res. 9, 28–64 (2014)Google Scholar
  45. Schmitt, B.: Experiential marketing. Mark. Manage. 15(June), 53–67 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Schmitt, B.: Experience marketing: concepts, frameworks and consumer insights by Bernd Schmitt contents. Found. Trends Mark. 5(2), 55–112 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Stürmer, R., Schmidt, J.: Erfolgreiches Marketing durch Emotionsforschung. Messung, Analyse, Best Practice. Freiburg: Haufe-Lexware GmbH & Co. KG (2014)Google Scholar
  48. Trommsdorff, V.: Konsumentenverhalten, 7th edn. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart (2009)Google Scholar
  49. Tussyadiah, I., Wang, D., Jia, C.H.: Exploring the persuasive power of virtual reality imagery for destination marketing. In: Tourism Travel and Research Association: Advancing Tourism Research Globally. 2016 TTRA International Conference, Colorado, USA, 15–17 June 2016Google Scholar
  50. Tussyadiah, I.P., Wang, D., Jia, C.H.: Virtual reality and attitudes toward tourism destinations. In R. Schegg, B. Stangl (eds.) Information and Communication Technologies in Tourism 2017, pp. 217–228. Springer, Berlin (2017)Google Scholar
  51. Tynan, C., McKechnie, S.: Experience marketing: a review and reassessment. J. Mark. Manage. 25(5–6), 501–517 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Walls, A.R., Okumus, F., Wang, Y.: Cognition and affect interplay: a framework for the tourist vacation decision-making process. J. Travel Tourism Mark. 28(5), 567–582 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Walters, G., Sparks, B., Herington, C.: The impact of consumption vision and emotion on the tourism consumer’s decision behavior. J. Hospitality Tourism Res. 36(3), 366–389 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Wan, C.S., Tsaur, S.H., Chiu, Y.L., Chiou, W.B.: Is the advertising effect of virtual experience always better or contingent on different travel destinations? Inf. Technol. Tourism 9(1), 45–54 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Salzburg University of Applied SciencesSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations