Advertisement

Significant Encounters and Consequential Eventualities: A Joint Narrative of Collegiality Marked by Struggles Against Reductionism, Essentialism and Exclusion in ELT

  • Masaki Oda
  • Glenn Toh
Chapter
Part of the Educational Linguistics book series (EDUL, volume 35)

Abstract

The combined narrative of our struggle against the anomalies of inclusion and exclusion, diversity and essentialism, hybridity and monolithism, agency and cooptation, collusion and marginalization begins with a ‘chance’ encounter at a conference in Hong Kong. Pooling together five decades of teaching experience, our critical historical narrative probes at the inner workings of cultural-political ideologies bearing on our professional practice and ontology as English teachers as well as their deleterious effects on institutional behaviors, human intransigence, and (counter)educational outcomes. Specifically, we capture the nature of ongoing contestations and contradictions faced by English teachers in the quest for more humanizing pedagogies and discursive spaces. We argue that the accompanying struggles stem from powerful cultural-political discourses in ELT that legitimate a status quo of inertia, while perpetuating inequalities of access and asymmetries in power relations among learners, teachers and vested stakeholders. We conclude that the work of uncovering dissimulated ideologies in the struggle between monolithism and diversity, structure and agency, oppression and transformation will benefit not only the silenced and disenfranchised, but even the vocal, oppressive and self-unseeing, to boot.

References

  1. Alderson, J. C. (2009). The micropolitics of research and publication. In J. C. Alderson (Ed.), The politics of language education: Individuals and institutions (pp. 222–236). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  2. Ball, S. J. (2010). The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity. Journal of Education Policy, 18(2), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bamberg, M. (1997). Positioning between structure and performance. Journal of Narrative and Life History, 7(1–4), 335–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barkhuizen, G. (2011). Narrative knowledge in TESOL. TESOL Quarterly, 45(3), 391–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Braine, G. (Ed.). (1999). Non-native educators in English language teaching. Marwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  6. Canagarajah, A. S. (1999). Resisting linguistic imperialism in English language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cheng, W. (2008). Co-constructing prejudiced talk: Ethnic stereotyping in intercultural communication between Hong Kong Chinese and English-Speaking Westerners. In A. Lin (Ed.), Problematizing identity (pp. 171–191). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  8. Chowdhury, R., & Phan, L. H. (2014). Desiring TESOL and international education: Market abuse and exploitation. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  9. Coffey, S. (2011). Agency and positioning: Looking back on a trip to France. In G. Barkhuizen (Ed.), Narrative research in applied linguistics (pp. 176–198). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Colebrook, R. (1996). The literature of “ELT” – A question of linguistic and culture imperialism? In J. James (Ed.), The language-culture connection (pp. 149–170). Singapore: SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.Google Scholar
  11. Dale, J., & Hyslop-Margison, E. (2010). Paulo Freire: Teaching for freedom and transformation. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  12. Dixon, A., & Rousseau, C. (2005). And we are still not saved: Critical race theory in education 10 years later. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 7–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research methods in applied linguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Drew, P., & Heritage, J. (1992). Analyzing talk at work: An introduction. In P. Drew & J. Heritage (Eds.), Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings (pp. 3–65). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Edwards, R., & Usher, R. (2003). Globalisation and pedagogy: Space, place and identity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  16. Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the oppressed (30th anniversary edition). New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  17. Giri, R., & Foo, J. (2014). On teaching EIL in a Japanese context: The power within and power without. In R. Marlina & R. Giri (Eds.), The pedagogy of English as an international language: Perspectives from scholars, teachers and students (pp. 239–258). Cham: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Goosseff, K. (2014). Only narratives can reflect the experience of objectivity: Effective persuasion. Journal of Organization Change Management, 27(5), 703–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gray, A. (2002). Research practice for cultural studies: Ethnographic methods and lived cultures. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Holliday, A. (1994). Appropriate methodology and social context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Holliday, A. (2005). The struggle to teach English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Honna, N., & Takeshita, Y. (1999). On Japan’s propensity for native speaker English: A change in sight. Asian Englishes, 1(1), 117–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Houghton, S. A., & Rivers, D. J. (2013). Introduction: Redefining native-speakerism. In S. A. Houghton & D. J. Rivers (Eds.), Native-speakerism in Japan: Intergroup dynamics in foreign language education (pp. 1–16). Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  24. Jannuzi, C. (1999, June 30). Response to Masaki Oda’s chapter in Braine’s new book. [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from https://linguistlist.org/issues/10/10-1015.html
  25. Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Jenkins, J. (2006). English as a lingua franca: Attitude and identity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Jenkins, J. (2014). English as a lingua franca in the international university: The politics of academic English language policy. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Kachru, B. (1982). The other tongue: English across cultures. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  29. Kachru, B. (1995). The speaking tree: A medium of plural canons. In M. Tickoo (Ed.), Language and culture in multilingual societies (pp. 1–20). Singapore: SEAMEO RELC.Google Scholar
  30. Kubota, R. (2011). Questioning linguistic instrumentalism: English, neoliberalism, and language tests in Japan. Linguistics and Education, 20, 248–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kubota, R., & Fujimoto, D. (2013). Racialized native speakers: Voices of Japanese American English language professionals. In S. A. Houghton & D. J. Rivers (Eds.), Native-speakerism in Japan: Intergroup dynamics in foreign language education (pp. 196–206). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  32. Kubota, R., & Lin, A. (2009). Race, culture and identities in second language education: Introduction to research and practice. In R. Kubota & A. Lin (Eds.), Race, culture, and identities in second language education: Exploring critically engaged practice (pp. 1–14). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  33. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2003). A postmethod perspective on English language teaching. World Englishes, 22(4), 539–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kumaravadivelu, B. (2006). Understanding language teaching: From method to postmethod. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Lea, M., & Street, B. (2000). Student writing and feedback in higher education: An academic literacies approach. In M. Lea & B. Stierer (Eds.), Student writing in higher education: New contexts (pp. 32–46). Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Lillis, T. (2003). Student writing as ‘academic literacies’: Drawing on Bakhtin to move from Critique to Design. Language and Education, 17(3), 192–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lillis, T., & Turner, J. (2001). Student writing in higher education: Contemporary confusion, traditional concerns. Teaching in Higher Education, 6(11), 57–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lin, A., & Luk, J. (2005). Local creativity in the face of global domination: Insights of Bakhtin for teaching English for dialogic communication. In J. K. Hall, G. Vitanova, & L. Marchenkova (Eds.), Contributions of Mikhail Bakhtin to understanding second and foreign language learning (pp. 77–98). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  39. Murphey, T. (2004). Participation, (dis-) identification, and Japanese university entrance exams. TESOL Quarterly, 38(4), 700–710.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Oda, M. (1999). English only or English plus? The language(s) of EFL organizations. In G. Braine (Ed.), Non-native educators in English language teaching (pp. 105–121). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  41. Oda, M. (2000). Linguicism in action: Language and power in academic institutions. In R. Phillipson (Ed.), Right to language: Equity, power and education (pp. 117–121). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Oda, M. (2007). Globalization or the world in English: Is Japan ready to face the waves? International Multilingual Research Journal, 1(2), 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pavlenko, A. (2007). Autobiographic narratives as data in applied linguistics. Applied Linguistics, 28(2), 163–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pennycook, A. (1994). The cultural politics of English as an international language. Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  45. Peters, M., & Roberts, P. (2012). The virtues of openness: Education, science, and scholarship in the digital age. Boulder: Paradigm.Google Scholar
  46. Phillipson, R. (1992). Linguistic imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Rivers, D. J. (2013). Institutionalized native-speakerism: Voices of dissent and acts of resistance. In S. A. Houghton & D. J. Rivers (Eds.), Native-speakerism in Japan: Intergroup dynamics in foreign language education (pp. 75–91). Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  48. Roberts, P., & Peters, M. (2008). Neoliberalism, higher education and research. Rotterdam: Sense.Google Scholar
  49. Schmidt, M., Naganuma, N., O’Dwyer, F., Imig, A., & Sakai, K. (2010). Can do statements in language education in Japan and beyond: Applications of the CEFR. Tokyo: Asahi.Google Scholar
  50. Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  51. Solorzano, D., & Yosso, T. (2002). Critical race methodology: Counter-storytelling as an analytical framework for education research. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(1), 23–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Stewart, A., & Miyahara, M. (2011). Parallel universes: Globalization and identity in English language teaching at a Japanese university. In P. Seargeant (Ed.), English in Japan in the era of globalization (pp. 60–79). New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Street, B. (2003). The implications of the ‘New Literacy Studies’ for literacy education. In S. Goodman, T. Lillis, J. Maybin, & N. Mercer (Eds.), Language, literacy and education: A reader (pp. 77–88). Stoke on Trent: Trentham.Google Scholar
  54. Toh, G. (2003a). A case for having a more critical orientation to ELT in Southeast Asia. World Englishes, 22(4), 531–538.Google Scholar
  55. Toh, G. (2003b). Response. World Englishes, 22(4), 548–549.Google Scholar
  56. Toh, G. (2004, July). What students have to tell us about the spread of English: Reflections on student motivation and affective filters. Paper presented at Tamagawa InForum held at Tamagawa University.Google Scholar
  57. Toh, G. (2014). English for content instruction in a Japanese higher education setting: Examining challenges, contradictions and anomalies. Language and Education, 28(4), 299–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Toh, G. (2017). Provocative encounters reflecting struggles with change: Power and coercion in a Japanese university situation. Policy Futures in Education, (Online first).Google Scholar
  59. Toh, G., & Raja, M. (1997). ELT materials: Perceptions about the question of cultural relevance. Guidelines, 19(2), 4–72.Google Scholar
  60. Van Dijk, T. (1996). Discourse, power and access. In C. Caldas-Coulthard & M. Coulthard (Eds.), Texts and practices: Readings in critical discourse (pp. 84–104). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. Widin, J. (2010). Illegitimate practices: Global English language education. Bristol: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for English as a Lingua FrancaTamagawa UniversityTokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations