Non-human C. difficile Reservoirs and Sources: Animals, Food, Environment

  • Cristina Rodriguez Diaz
  • Christian Seyboldt
  • Maja Rupnik
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1050)


Clostridium difficile is ubiquitous and is found in humans, animals and in variety of environments. The substantial overlap of ribotypes between all three main reservoirs suggests the extensive transmissions. Here we give the overview of European studies investigating farm, companion and wild animals, food and environments including water, soil, sediment, waste water treatment plants, biogas plants, air and households. Studies in Europe are more numerous especially in last couple of years, but are still fragmented in terms of countries, animal species or type of environment covered. Soil seem to be the habitat of divergent unusual lineages of C. difficile. But the most important aspect of animals and environment is their role in C. difficile transmissions and their potential as a source for human infection is discussed.


Farm animals Pets Water Soil Environment Food Transmission 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristina Rodriguez Diaz
    • 1
  • Christian Seyboldt
    • 2
  • Maja Rupnik
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Food Science, FARAHUniversity of LiègeLiègeBelgium
  2. 2.Institute of Bacterial Infections and Zoonoses, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal HealthJenaGermany
  3. 3.Environment and FoodNational Laboratory for Health, NLZOHMariborSlovenia
  4. 4.Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MariborMariborSlovenia

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