Advertisement

Emerging Adulthood: A Time of Instability, Exploration, and Change

  • Christopher SalvatoreEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Emerging adulthood is marked by changes across multiple life domains. These distinguishing features have been identified by scholars as being key to understanding the exploratory nature of emerging adult including changing of jobs, different types of romantic and sexual relationships, experimentation with drugs, and alcohol, and engaging in risky and dangerous behaviors.

Keywords

Instability Change Identity exploration Self-focus Optimism 

References

  1. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.469.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnett, J. J. (2003). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adults in American ethnic groups. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 100, 63–75.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cd.75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnett, J. J. (2004). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Arnett, J. J. (2005). The developmental context of substance use in emerging adulthood. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 235–254.  https://doi.org/10.1177/002204260503500202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arnett, J. J. (2006). G. Stanley Hall’s adolescence: Brilliance and nonsense. History of Psychology, 9, 186–197.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1093-4510.9.3.186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Arnett, J. J. (2015). Emerging adulthood: The winding road from the late teens through the twenties. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arnett, J. J., & Schwab, J. (2013). Parents and their grown kids: Harmony, support, and (occasional) conflict. Worcester, MA: Clark University. Retrieved from http://www2.clarku.edu/clark-poll-emerging-adults/pdfs/clark-university-poll-parents-emerging-adults.pdf
  8. Cote, J. (2000). Arrested adulthood: The changing nature of maturity and identity. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Erickson, E. H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  10. Erickson, E. H. (1968). Identity: Youth and crisis. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  11. Facio, A., & Micocci, F. (2003). Emerging adulthood in Argentina. New Directions in Child and Adolescent Development, 100, 21–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Garcia, J. R., & Reiber, C. (2008). Hook-up behavior: A biopsychosocial perspective. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 2, 192–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gillespie, P. (2015). More American teens are getting jobs and that’s good for everyone. CNN. Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/2015/07/03/news/economy/america-teenage-economy-jobs/index.html
  14. Goldscheider, F., & Goldscheider, C. (1994). Leaving and returning home in twentieth century America. Population Reference Bulletin, 48, 1–35.Google Scholar
  15. Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Greenberger, E., & Steinberg, L. D. (1986). When teenagers work: The psychological and social costs of adolescent employment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  17. Horowitz, A. D., & Bromnick, R. D. (2007). ‘Contestable adulthood’: Variability and disparity in markers for negotiating the tradition to adulthood. Youth & Society, 39, 209–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Husson, A. M., Kicks, R. E., Levy, S. A., & Curran, P. J. (2001). Specifying the relations between affect and heavy alcohol use among young adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 449–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kypri, K., McCarthy, D., Coe, M., & Brown, S. (2004). Transition to independent living and substance involvement. Journal of Child & Adolescent Substance Abuse, 13, 85–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lambert, T. A., Kahn, A. S., & Apple, K. J. (2003). Pluralistic ignorance and hooking up. Journal of Sex Research, 40, 129–133.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490309552174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Larson, R. W. (1990). The solitary side of life: An examination of the time people spend alone from childhood to old age. Developmental Review, 10, 155–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McNamara-Barry, C. M., Madsen, S. D., Nelson, L. J., Carroll, J. S., & Badger, S. (2009). Friendship and romantic relationship qualities in emerging adulthood: Differential associations with identity development and achieved adulthood criteria. Journal of Adult Development, 16, 209–222.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-009-9067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Mortimer, J. T. (2010). The benefits and risks of adolescent employment. The Prevention Researcher, 17, 8–11.Google Scholar
  24. Okimoto, J. D., & Stegall, P. J. (1987). Boomerang kids. New York: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  25. Paul, E. L., & Hayes, K. A. (2002). The casualties of ‘casual’ sex: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19, 639–661.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407502195006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Paul, E. L., Wenzel, A., & Harvey, J. (2008). ‘Hookups’: Characteristics and correlates of college student’s spontaneous and anonymous sexual experiences. Journal of Sex Research, 37, 76–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pittman, L. D., & Richmond, A. (2008). University belonging, friendship quality, and psychological adjustment during the transition to college. Journal of Experimental Education, 76, 343–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ravert, R. D. (2009). ‘You’re only young once’: Things college students report doing now before it’s too late. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24, 376–396.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558409334254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Salvatore, C. (2013). Arrested adolescent offenders: A study of delayed transition to adulthood. El Paso, TX: LFB Publications.Google Scholar
  30. Schulman, S., & Connolly, J. (2013). The challenge of romantic relationships in emerging adulthood: Reconceptualization of the field. Emerging Adulthood, 1, 27–39.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696812467330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Schwartz, S. J., Zamboanga, B. L., Luyckx, K., Meca, A., & Ritchie, R. (2015). Identity development in emerging adulthood. In J. J. Arnett (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of emerging adulthood. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Montclair State UniversityMontclairUSA

Personalised recommendations