Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Portal Hypertension

  • Hitoshi MaruyamaEmail author
  • Naoya Kato


Portal hypertension is the major and common complication of cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic portal hypertension. Its severity is determined by the portal pressure or hepatic venous pressure gradients, which are measured invasively using catheterization. Ultrasound (US) is a simple and non-invasive technique available worldwide and is probably the most frequently used imaging tool for liver diseases. With the introduction of microbubble-based materials, contrast-enhanced US (CEUS) has become popular for the detailed evaluation of diffuse liver disease and focal hepatic lesions. The recent development of digital technology resulted in the improved visualization of contrast-enhanced appearance with higher resolution, leading to a wider range of applications of CEUS. This chapter describes the concept, benefits, and limitations of CEUS for the non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension.


Ultrasound Contrast agent Liver Portal hemodynamics Cirrhosis 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GastroenterologyChiba University Graduate School of MedicineChibaJapan

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