Advertisement

Parenting Values and Practices Across Post-Communist Societies in Youth Identity Formation: A Literature Review

  • Oriola Hamzallari
Chapter
Part of the Societies and Political Orders in Transition book series (SOCPOT)

Abstract

This chapter reviews the literature analyzing whether and how post-communism transition has transformed parenting values and practices and how these changes might have had an impact on youth identity formation. In total 16 studies conducted in 9 EU post-Soviet countries (Czech Republic, Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Romania) were analyzed. This review provides information about similar and different patterns of parental values and practices and identity formation in youth among post-Soviet EU countries in comparison with Western countries. Results showed similarities and differences in parental values and practices and identity formation in adolescents and youth among these countries and compared to Western countries. Similarities among parental values were found, where parents’ value orientation is toward collectivism and interdependence; however in regard to parenting practices, parental support and control had different effects in different countries analyzed in this review. Differences between identity in exploration and commitment as well as in identity styles (informational versus normative styles) emerged in EU post-Soviet studies. Understanding the psychological mechanism between parenting values, dimensions and youth identity can be of great value in providing support and developing programs to the needs of parents and youth in transitional societies in EU.

Keywords

Parenting values Parenting practices Youth identity formation EU post-communist countries Identity styles 

References

  1. Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the twenties. American Psychologist, 55, 469–480.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.55.5.469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bebler, A. (2002). Slovenia’s smooth transition. Journal of Democracy, 13, 127–140.  https://doi.org/10.1353/jod.2002.0001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bennich-Björkman, L. (2007). The cultural roots of Estonia’s successful transition: How historical legacies shaped the 1990s. East European Politics and Societies, 21, 316–347.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0888325407299785CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bennich-Björkman, L., & Johansson, K. M. (2012). Explaining moderation in nationalism: Divergent trajectories of national conservative parties in Estonia and Latvia. Comparative European Politics, 10, 585–607.  https://doi.org/10.1057/cep.2011.28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berzonsky, M. D. (1989). Identity style: Conceptualization and measurement. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 268–282.  https://doi.org/10.1177/074355488943002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bobakova, D., Geckova, A. M., Klein, D., van Dijk, J. P., & Reijneveld, S. A. (2015). Fighting, truancy and low academic achievement in youth subcultures. Young Consumers, 23, 357–372.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1103308815596905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carpenter, M. (1997). Slovakia and the triumph of nationalist populism. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 30, 205–219.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-067X(97)00005-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ciobanu, M. (2010). Communist regimes, legitimacy and the transition to democracy in Eastern Europe. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 38, 3–21.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00905990903394490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Clark, T. D., & Pranevičiūte, J. (2008). Perspectives on communist successor parties: The case of Lithuania. Communist and Post-Communist Studies, 41(4), 443–464.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.postcomstud.2008.09.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crocetti, E., Rubini, M., & Meeus, W. (2008). Capturing the dynamics of identity formation in various ethnic groups: Development and validation of a three-dimensional model. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 207–222.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.09.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Crocetti, E. (2017). Identity formation in adolescence: The dynamic of forming and consolidating identity commitments. Child Development Perspective, 11, 145–150.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdep.12226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crocetti, E., Beyers, W., & Çok, F. (2016). Shedding light on the dark side of identity: Introduction to the special issue. Journal of Adolescence, 47, 104–108.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crocetti, E., Branje, S., Rubini, M., Koot, H. M., & Meeus, W. (2017). Identity processes and parent–child and sibling relationships in adolescence: A five-wave multi-informant longitudinal study. Child Development, 88, 210–228.  https://doi.org/10.1111/cdev.12547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cruz, M. Z. (2014). The role of Catholicism in the development of Lithuanian national identity. Church History and Religious Culture, 94, 479–504.  https://doi.org/10.1163/18712428-09404003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dwairy, M., & Achoui, M. (2010). Adolescents-family connectedness: A first cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adjustment of children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19, 8–15.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-009-9335-1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Erikson, E. (1950). Childhood and society. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  17. Erikson, E. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. New York, NY: Norton.Google Scholar
  18. Friedlmeier, M., & Friedlmeier, W. (2012). Relative contribution of mothers and fathers to adolescents’ values in Romanian families. Cognition, Brain, Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 16, 239–264.Google Scholar
  19. Friedlmeier, M., & Trommsdorff, G. (2011). Are mother-child similarities in value orientations related to mothers’ parenting? A comparative study of American and Romanian mothers and their adolescent children. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8, 661–680.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2011.590649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Greenfield, P. M., Keller, H., Fuligni, A., & Maynard, A. (2003). Cultural pathways through universal development. Annual Review of Psychology, 54, 461–490.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.54.101601.145221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Janssens, A., Goossens, L., Van Den Noortgate, W., Colpin, H., Verschueren, K., & Van Leeuwen, K. (2015). Parents’ and adolescents’ perspectives on parenting: Evaluating conceptual structure, measurement invariance, and criterion validity. Assessment, 22, 473–489.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191114550477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (1996). Family and human development across cultures: A view from the other side. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Kağıtçıbaşı, Ç. (2007). Family, self, and human development across cultures: Theory and applications (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  24. Kaniušonytė, G., & Žukauskienė, R. (2017). Relationships with parents, identity styles, and positive youth development during the transition from adolescence to emerging adulthood. Emerging Adulthood, (Special Issue), 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2167696817690978
  25. Kemp-Welch, A. (2008). Poland under communism: A cold war history. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kuhar, M., & Reiter, H. (2012). Frozen transitions to adulthood of young people in Slovenia. Sociologija, 54, 211–226.  https://doi.org/10.2298/soc1202211kCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S. J., Berzonsky, M. D., Soenens, B., Vansteenkiste, M., & Smits, I. (2008). Capturing ruminative exploration: Extending the four-dimensional model of identity formation in late adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 58–82.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2007.04.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Luyckx, K., Schwartz, S. J., Rassart, J., & Klimstra, T. A. (2016). Intergenerational associations linking identity styles and processes in adolescents and their parents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13, 67–83.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2015.1066668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Luyckx, K., Soenens, B., Goossens, L., Beckx, K., & Wouters, S. (2008). Identity exploration and commitment in late adolescence: Correlates of perfectionism and mediating mechanisms on the pathway to well-being. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 333–361.  https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2008.27.4.336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Macek, P., Bejček, J., & Vaníčková, J. (2007). Contemporary Czech emerging adults: Generation growing up in the period of social changes. Journal of Adolescent Research, 22, 444–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Macek, P., Jezek, S., & Vazsonyi, A. T. (2013). Adolescents during and after times of social change: The case of the Czech Republic. Journal of Early Adolescence, 33, 1029–1047.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0272431613507758CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Marcia, J. E. (1966). Development and validation of ego–identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 3, 551–558.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0023281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Marcia, J. E. (1980). Identity in adolescence. In J. Adelson (Ed.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (pp. 159–187). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  34. Metreveli, M., & Timothy, D. J. (2010). Religious heritage and emerging tourism in the Republic of Georgia. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 5, 237–244.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873X.2010.515310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Negru-Subtirica, O., Pop, E. I., & Crocetti, E. (2017). A longitudinal integration of identity styles and educational identity processes in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 53, 2127–2138.  https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Prioste, A., Narciso, I., Gonçalves, M. M., & Pereira, C. R. (2015). Family relationships and parenting practices: A pathway to adolescents’ collectivist and individualist values? Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24, 3258–3267.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0129-3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Prioste, A., Narciso, I., Gonçalves, M. M., & Pereira, C. R. (2016). Values’ family flow: Associations between grandparents, parents and adolescent children. Journal of Family Studies, 23, 98–117.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13229400.2016.1187659CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Raeff, C. (2010). Independence and interdependence in children’s developmental experiences. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 31–36.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00113.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Rageliene, T., & Justickis, V. (2016). Interrelations of adolescent’s identity development, differentiation of self and parenting styles. Psichologija, 53, 24–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ramet, S. P. (2017). Controversies in the social and political engagement of the Catholic Church in Poland since 1988. In S. Ramet & I. Borowik (Eds.), Religion, politics, and values in Poland (pp. 19–40). New York: Palgrave Macmillan.  https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-43751-8_2CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Remmel, A. (2017). Religion, interrupted? Observations on religious indifference in Estonia. In J. Quack & C. Schuh (Eds.), Religious indifferences: New perspectives from studies on secularisation and nonreligion (pp. 128–147). Wiesbaden: Springer.Google Scholar
  42. Schwartz, S. J., Luyckx, K., & Crocetti, E. (2014). What have we learned since Schwartz (2001)? A reappraisal of the field of identity development. In K. C. McLean & M. Syed (Eds.), Oxford handbook of identity development (pp. 539–561). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Šerek, J., Macek, P., Ježek, S., & Lacinová, L. (2014). Twenty years after the velvet revolution: Shifts in Czech adolescents’ perceptions of family, school, and society. Journal of Adolescent Research, 29, 738–764.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0743558414538315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Simuț, C. C., & Buitendag, J. (2015). Promoting ancestry as ecodomy in Romanian Eastern Orthodox Christianity. The role of ancestors in contemporary Romanian Orthodox rhetoric. The Expository Times, 126, 475–487.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0014524615571245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Skhirtladze, N., Javakhishvili, N., Scwartz, S. J., Beyers, W., & Luyckx, K. (2016). Identity processes and statuses in post-Soviet Georgia: Exploration processes operate differently. Journal of Adolescence, 47, 197–209.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2015.08.006CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Skhirtladze, N., Javakhishvili, N., Schwartz, J. S., & Luyckx, K. (2018). Identity styles in Georgian context and their association to parenting dimensions. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2017.1334549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Smrke, M. (2016). The decapitation of Slovenia’s Catholic Church: Social factors and consequences. Religion, State & Society, 44, 152–171.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09637494.2016.1194009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Taivans, L. (2013). Latvia: Culture as a new religious movement. In J. Priede (Ed.), Oriental studies between East and West: Cultural and religious dialogue before, during and after the totalitarian rule (Vol. 793 of Scholarly Papers of University of Latvia, pp. 46–52). Riga: University of Latvia.Google Scholar
  49. Tamis-LeMonda, C. S., Way, N., Hughes, D., Yoshikawa, H., Kalman, R. K., & Niwa, E. Y. (2008). Parents’ goals for children: The dynamic coexistence of individualism and collectivism in cultures and individuals. Social development, 17, 183–209.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00419.xGoogle Scholar
  50. Toft, M. D. (2001). Multinationality, regions and state-building: The failed transition in Georgia. Regional & Federal Studies, 11, 123–142.  https://doi.org/10.1080/714004709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tulviste, T. (2004). Sociocultural variation in mothers’ control over children’s behavior. Ethos, 32, 34–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tulviste, T., & Mizera, L. (2012). A comparison of Estonian senior high school students’ value priorities in 2000 and 2009. Trames, 16, 145–156.  https://doi.org/10.3176/tr.2012.2.03CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tulviste, T., Mizera, L., & De Geer, B. (2012). Socialization values in stable and changing societies: A comparative study of Estonian, Swedish, and Russian Estonian mothers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 43, 480–497.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022111401393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tulviste, T., Mizera, L., De Geer, B., & Tryggvason, M.-T. (2003). A comparison of Estonian, Swedish, and Finnish mothers’ controlling attitudes and behaviour. International Journal of Psychology, 38, 46–53.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207590244000278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wejnert, B., & Djumabaeva, A. (2004). From patriarchy to egalitarianism: Parenting roles in democratizing Poland and Kyrgyzstan. Marriage & Family Review, 36, 147–171.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Whittemore, R., & Knafl, K. (2005). The integrative review: Updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52, 546–553.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Willard, A. K., & Cingl, L. (2017). Testing theories of secularization and religious belief in the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38, 604–615.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.01.002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Worldometers. (2017a). Population of Czech Republic. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/czech-republic-population/
  59. Worldometers. (2017b). Population of Estonia. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/estonia-population/
  60. Worldometers. (2017c). Population of Georgia. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/georgia-population/
  61. Worldometers. (2017d). Population of Latvia. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/latvia-population/
  62. Worldometers. (2017e). Population of Lithuania. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/lithuania-population/
  63. Worldometers. (2017f). Population of Poland. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/poland-population/
  64. Worldometers. (2017g). Population of Romania. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/Romania-population/
  65. Worldometers. (2017h). Population of Slovakia. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/slovakia-population/
  66. Worldometers. (2017i). Population of Slovenia. Retrieved from http://www.worldometers.info/world-population/slovenia-population/
  67. Žukauskienė, R., Truskauskaite-Kuneviciene, I., Kaniušonytė, G., & Crocetti, E. (2017). How do Lithuanian adolescents address identity questions? A four-wave longitudinal study on change and stability in identity styles. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 15, 41–60.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2017.1285762

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aleksander Moisiu UniversityDurrësAlbania

Personalised recommendations