Multiple Social Identities in Relation to Self-Esteem of Adolescents in Post-communist Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania

  • Radosveta Dimitrova
  • Pasquale Musso
  • Iva Polackova Solcova
  • Delia Stefenel
  • Fitim Uka
  • Skerdi Zahaj
  • Peter Tavel
  • Venzislav Jordanov
  • Evgeni Jordanov
Part of the Societies and Political Orders in Transition book series (SOCPOT)


We test a model linking ethnic, familial, and religious identity to self-esteem among youth in Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. All countries are post-communist nations in Europe, offering novel and underexplored settings to study identity. Participants were 880 adolescents (mean age, 15.93 years; SD, 1.40) with Albanian (n = 209), Bulgarian (n = 146), Czech (n = 306), Kosovan (n = 116), and Romanian (n = 103) background who filled in an Ethnic Identity Scale (Dimitrova et al., 2016), familial and religious identity scales adapted from the Utrecht Management of Identity Commitment Scales [U-MICS; Crocetti et al. Child and Youth Care Forum, 40, 7–23 (2011); Crocetti et al. Assessment, 1, 2–16 (2015)], and the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale [Rosenberg, Conceiving the self. Basic Books, New York (1979)]. A multigroup path model showed that ethnic, familial, and religious identities were significantly positively related to a single underlying construct of social identities. In all countries, youth with a stronger multiple identities reported higher self-esteem. These results are particularly valuable in addressing the scope of the proposed book by providing new knowledge on multiple social identities among under investigated samples from post-communist countries in Europe faced with dynamic societal changes. They also mirror increasing attention on multiple, inclusive, and intersectional identities as psychological assets for young generations.


Ethnic, familial and religious identity Self-esteem Youth 


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Radosveta Dimitrova
    • 1
  • Pasquale Musso
    • 2
  • Iva Polackova Solcova
    • 3
  • Delia Stefenel
    • 4
  • Fitim Uka
    • 5
  • Skerdi Zahaj
    • 6
  • Peter Tavel
    • 7
  • Venzislav Jordanov
    • 8
  • Evgeni Jordanov
    • 9
  1. 1.Stockholm UniversityStockholmSweden
  2. 2.University of PalermoPalermo PAItaly
  3. 3.The Czech Academy of SciencesPragueCzech Republic
  4. 4.Lucian Blaga University of SibiuSibiuRomania
  5. 5.College “Heimerer” and University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina”PristinaKosovo
  6. 6.University of TiranaTiranaAlbania
  7. 7.Palacky UniversityOlomoucCzech Republic
  8. 8.University of World and National Economy (UWNE)SofiaBulgaria
  9. 9.Ivan Rilski UniversitySofiaBulgaria

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