An Integrative Temporal Framework for Psychological Resilience

  • Kan Long
  • George A. Bonanno
Part of the Child Maltreatment Solutions Network book series (CMSN)


 Human beings are resilient and defined by a capacity for psychological and functional adaptation in the face of potential trauma and adversity. We present an integrative temporal framework that conceptualizes resilience as a dynamic process that unfolds over time and consists of the following four key elements: (a) baseline or pre-adversity functioning, (b) the actual aversive circumstances, (c) post-adversity resilient outcomes, and (d) predictors of resilient outcomes. In this way, the integrative framework offers a comprehensive synthesis of the growing body of research on resilience.


Resilience Exposure Flexibility Chronic adversity Emergent resilience Aversive circumstances Resilient outcomes 


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Counseling and Clinical Psychology, Teachers CollegeColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

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