The Empirical Macro-Model: How to Measure Democracy and the Quality of Democracy in Global Comparison
- 243 Downloads
The one established standard for democracy research is to refer democracy to the three dimensions of freedom, equality, and control (see, e.g., Lauth 2004). For the purpose of applying an underlying conceptual (and theoretical) model for the empirical measurement of democracies worldwide, the decision was to create and to opt for a quintuple-dimensional structure of democracy (“basic quintuple-dimensional structure of democracy and quality of democracy”) that identifies five basic dimensions (basic conceptual dimensions). The three dimensions of freedom, equality, and control are extended by the dimensions of “sustainable development” (Quadruple Structure) and “self-organization” or “political self-organization” (Quintuple Structure). Government/opposition cycles and political swings (political left/right swings) represent a crucial manifestation of political self-organization. Therefore, the proposition is that government/opposition cycles (political swings) constitute an essential component for democracies and how they operate and perform and progress. Government/opposition cycles and political swings are the key to quality of democracy. Because the resulting indices are multi-dimensional, not the idea of a creation of a single ranking of democracies or of the quality of democracy is being advocated. What may result would be a diversity of rankings, competing with each other for the opportunity of different and diverging interpretations, by this fostering analytical pluralism. This notion of indices or index-building offers additional reference points for helping to read and to interpret results and effects of assigning indicator-based countries (democracies, semi-democracies, and non-democracies) to dimensions and sub-dimensions.
KeywordsBasic Quintuple-Dimensional structure of democracy and quality of democracy Control Equality Freedom Government/opposition cycles Multi-Dimensional Index-Building Political Self-Organization Political swings Sustainable development
- Backhaus, K., Erichson, B., Plinke, W., Schuchard-Fischer, C., & Weiber, R. (1987). Multivariate Analysemethoden: Eine Anwendungsorientierte Einführung. Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
- Campbell, D. F. J. (1994). European Nation-State Under Pressure: National Fragmentation or the Evolution of Suprastate Structures? Cybernetics and Systems: An International Journal, 25(6), 879–909. http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~db=all~content=g770888219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Campbell, D. F. J. (2010). Key Findings (SUMMARY Abstract) of the Democracy Ranking 2010 and the Democracy Improvement Ranking 2010. Vienna: Democracy Ranking. http://democracyranking.org/wordpress/ranking/2010/data/Key%20findings%20of%20the%20Democracy%20Ranking%202010_A4.pdf.
- Campbell, D. F. J., Alexandra, F., & Amelie, D. (2017). Innovations in Presidential Elections: The United States, France and Austria in Comparison. In E. G. Carayannis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (pp. 1–8). New York, NY: Springer. https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-1-4614-6616-1_200083-1.
- Campbell, D. F. J., Barth, T. D., Pölzlbauer, P., & Pölzlbauer, G. (2012). Democracy Ranking (Edition 2012): The Quality of Democracy in the World. Norderstedt: Books on Demand (Democracy Ranking Association).Google Scholar
- Carayannis, E. G., Barth, T. D., & Campbell, D. F. J. (2012). The Quintuple Helix Innovation Model: Global Warming as a Challenge and Driver for Innovation. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 1–12. http://www.innovation-entrepreneurship.com/content/pdf/2192-5372-1-2.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. J. (2011). Open Innovation Diplomacy and a 21st Century Fractal Research, Education and Innovation (FREIE) Ecosystem: Building on the Quadruple and Quintuple Helix Innovation Concepts and the “Mode 3” Knowledge Production System. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 2(3), 327–372. http://www.springerlink.com/content/d1lr223321305579/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Dubina, I. N., Carayannis, E. G., & Campbell, D. F. J. (2012). Creativity Economy and a Crisis of the Economy? Coevolution of Knowledge, Innovation, and Creativity, and of the Knowledge Economy and Knowledge Society. Journal of the Knowledge Economy, 3(1), 1–24. http://www.springerlink.com/content/t5j8l12136h526h5/.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Economist Intelligence Unit. (2011). Democracy Index 2010: Democracy in Retreat: A Report from the Economist Intelligence Unit. London: Economist Intelligence Unit. http://graphics.eiu.com/PDF/Democracy_Index_2010_web.pdf.
- Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- Freedom House. (2013a). Freedom in the World: Aggregate Scores of Political Rights and Civil Liberties, 2003–2013. Washington, DC: Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/AggregateScores_FIW2003-2013%20%28final%29.xls.
- Freedom House. (2013b). Freedom in the World 2013. Methodology. Washington, DC: Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world-2013/methodology.
- Freedom House. (2013c). Freedom of the Press: Scores and Status Date 1980–2013. Washington, DC: Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FOTP%20Scores%20and%20Status%201980-2013_0.xls.
- Freedom House. (2013d). Freedom in the World Comparative and Historical Data. Country Ratings and Status by Region, FIW 1973–2013. Washington, DC: Freedom House. http://www.freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/Country%20Status%20and%20Ratings%20By%20Region%2C%201973-2013_0.xls.
- Fukuyama, F. (1989). The End of History? The National Interest (Summer 1989), 3–18. http://www.cla.wayne.edu/polisci/kdk/Comparative/SOURCES/fukayama.htm.
- Hooghe, L., & Marks, G. (2001). Multi-level Governance and European Integration. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
- IMF (International Monetary Fund). (2011). World Economic Outlook, April 2011. Tensions from the Two-Speed Recovery Unemployment, Commodities, and Capital Flows. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2011/01/pdf/text.pdf.
- Jakobson, L., Holtom, P., Knox, D., & Peng, J. (2011). China’s Energy and Security Relations with Russia: Hopes, Frustrations and Uncertainties. Stockholm: Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). http://books.sipri.org/files/PP/SIPRIPP29.pdf.
- Kagan, R. (2003). Of Paradise and Power: America and Europe in the New World Order. New York, NY: Knopf.Google Scholar
- Kübler, D. (2015). De-nationalization and Multi-level Governance. In D. Braun & M. Maggeti (Eds.), Comparative Politics. Theoretical and Methodological Challenges (pp. 55–89). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
- Lundvall, B. (Ed.). (1992). National Systems of Innovation: Towards a Theory of Innovation and Interactive Learning. London: Pinter Publishers.Google Scholar
- Nelson, R. R. (Ed.). (1993). National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Rifkin, J. (2004). The European Dream: How Europe’s Vision of the Future is Quietly Eclipsing the American Dream. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Sachs, G. (2007). Global Economic Paper No. 153. New York, NY: Goldman Sachs. http://www.chicagobooth.edu/alumni/clubs/pakistan/docs/next11dream-march%20’07-goldmansachs.pdf.
- Sodaro, M. J. (2004). Comparative Politics: A Global Introduction (2nd ed.). With contributions by D. W. Collinwood, B. J. Dickson, J. L. Klesner, & T. D. Sisk. New York: Mc Graw Hill.Google Scholar
- UNDP (United Nations Development Programme (2007). Human Development Report 2007/2008. Fighting Climate Change: Human Solidarity in a Divided World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2007-8/.
- UNDP (United Nations Development Programme). (2009). Human Development Report 2009. Overcoming Barriers: Human Mobility and Development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2009/.
- UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) (2010). Human Development Report 2010: 20th Anniversary Edition. The Real Wealth of Nations: Pathways to Human Development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2010/.
- UNDP (United Nations Development Program). (2013). Human Development Report 2013: The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World. New York, NY: United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2013_EN_complete.pdf and http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr2013/.
- UNDP (United Nations Development Program). (2016). Human Development for Everyone. New York, NY: United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/human-development-report-2016-human-development-everyone and http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2016_human_development_report.pdf.
- World Bank. (2010). World Development Indicators (Web-based Online Database). Washington, DC: World Bank. http://databank.worldbank.org/ddp/home.do?Step=12&id=4&CNO=2.
- World Bank. (2011). World Development Indicators (Web-based Online Database). Washington, DC: World Bank. http://databank.worldbank.org/ddp/home.do?Step=12&id=4&CNO=2.
- World Bank. (2013). World Development Indicators (Web-based Online Database). Washington, DC: World Bank. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/variableselection/selectvariables.aspx?source=world-development-indicators.
- World Bank. (2018). World Development Indicators (Web-based Online Database). Washington, DC: World Bank. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/reports.aspx?source=world-development-indicators&preview=on.