A Comparative Analysis of China and Turkey’s Development Aid Activities in Sub-Saharan Africa

  • Ferit Belder
  • Samiratou Dipama


The main aim of this chapter is to critically assess the motivations, instruments, and geographical distribution of Turkey and China’s development aid policies in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and to locate them in the broader South–South Cooperation context. To this end, it first investigates the core motivations of Turkish and Chinese development aid policies in SSA. Second, it briefly provides an overview of the main instruments and means used by Turkey and China. Lastly, by looking at the geographical distribution of Turkish and Chinese aid in Africa, it attempts to understand the key recipients of this aid and the rationales behind the priority given to these countries.


Turkey Organisation Of Economic Co-operation And Development (OECD) Ministry Of Commerce (MOFCOM) Ministry Of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) China Eximbank 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Afacan, İsa. 2012. Türk Dış Politikası’nda Afrika Açılımı. Ortadoğu Analiz 4 (46): 10–18.Google Scholar
  2. Akpınar, Pınar. 2013. Turkey’s Peacebuilding in Somalia: The Limits of Humanitarian Diplomacy. Turkish Studies 14 (4): 735–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al Arabiya. 2012. Turkey Tries Out Soft Power, Hard Cash in Somalia, June 3.
  4. Al Jazeera. 2016. Erdoğan: Türkiye’nin Afrika’da sömürgeci geçmişi olmadı, June 1.
  5. Alden, Chris. 2005. Red Star, Black Gold. Review of African Political Economy 32 (104/105): 415–419.Google Scholar
  6. Anshan, Li. 2007. China and Africa: Policy and Challenges. China Security 3 (3): 69–93.Google Scholar
  7. Bräutigam, Deborah. 2008. China’s African Aid: Transatlantic Challenges. German Marshall Fund of the United States Program on Aid Effectiveness Policy Paper, April.Google Scholar
  8. ———. 2010. China, Africa and the International Aid Architecture. African Development Bank Group Working Paper, No. 107, Tunis.Google Scholar
  9. ———. 2011a. The Dragon’s Gift: The Real Story of China in Africa. Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2011b. Keynote: The Dragon’s Gift. Global Studies Review 7 (3).
  11. Bräutigam, Deborah, and Tang Xiaoyang. 2011. African Shenzhen: China’s Special Economic Zones in Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies 49 (1): 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Condon, Madison. 2012. China in Africa: What the Policy of Nonintervention Adds to the Western Development Dilemma. Praxis: The Fletcher Journal of Human Security 27: 5–25.Google Scholar
  13. Davies, Penny. 2007. China and the End of Poverty in Africa. Sundyberg: Diakonia, Alfaprint.Google Scholar
  14. Davies, Martyn. 2008. How China Delivers Development Assistance to Africa. South Africa: Centre for Chinese Studies.Google Scholar
  15. Davis, Steve, and Jonathan, Woetzel. 2010. Making the Most Chinese Aid to Africa. McKindsey&Company.
  16. Davutoğlu, Ahmet. 2013. Turkey’s Humanitarian Diplomacy: Objectives, Challenges and Prospects. Nationalities Papers 41 (6): 865–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Defraigne, Jean-Christopher, and Serena, Belligoli. 2010. Ties Between Business and Aid Programs in Africa: A Comparative Analysis Between the European and the Chinese Cases. Presented at the EBHA Conference, Glasgow.Google Scholar
  18. Dent, Christopher. 2011. Africa and China: A New Kind of Development Partnership. In China and Africa Development Relations, ed. C.M. Dent. Abingdon/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Donelli, Federico. 2015. Turkey’s Presence in Somalia a Humanitarian Approach. In The Depth of Turkish Geopolitics in the AKP’s Foreign Policy: From Europe to an Extended Neighbourhood, ed. A. Chiriatti, E. Diodato, S. Dogan, F. Donelli, and B. Yilmaz, 35–51. Perugia: Università per Stranieri Perugia.Google Scholar
  20. Dreher, Axel, and Andreas, Fuchs. 2012. Rogue Aid? The Determinants of China’s Aid Allocation, Courant Research Centre’s Discussion Papers, No. 93. Goettingen, September 2011 (Revised February 2012).Google Scholar
  21. Fırat, Melek. 1997. 1960–71 Arası Türk Dış Politikası ve Kıbrıs Sorunu. Ankara: Siyasal Kitabevi.Google Scholar
  22. Foster, Vivien, et al. 2008. Building Bridges: China’s Growing Role as Infrastructure Financier for Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank and PPIAF.
  23. Gray, Kevin, and Barry K. Gills. 2016. South–South Cooperation and the Rise of the Global South. Third World Quarterly 37 (4): 557–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Halper, Stefan. 2010. The Beijing Consensus: How China’s Authoritarian Model Will Dominate the Twenty-First Century. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Hausmann, Jeannine. 2014. Turkey as a Donor Country and Potential Partner in Triangular Cooperation. German Development Institute Discussion Paper (14).Google Scholar
  26. Hausmann, Jeannine, and Erik, Lundsgaarde. 2015. Turkey’s Role in Development Cooperation, United Nations University Centre for Policy Research.Google Scholar
  27. Huang, Meibo. 2015. South-South Cooperation, North-South Aid and the Prospect of International Aid Architecture. Vestnik RUDN International Relations 1: 24–31.Google Scholar
  28. Hurriyet Daily News. 2016. Turkey Voices Strong Economic, Trade Interest in Africa, November 02.
  29. Idun-Arkhurst Isaac, and James Laing. 2007. The Impact of the Chinese Presence in Africa, Africa Practice Report, JETRO London.Google Scholar
  30. IHH Humanitarian Relief Foundation. 2016.
  31. Jin, Ling. 2010. Aid to Africa: What Can the EU and China Learn from Each Other? South African Institute of International Affairs (SAIIA) Occasional Paper, March.Google Scholar
  32. Korkut, Umut, and İlke Civelekoglu. 2013. Becoming a Regional Power While Pursuing Material Gains: The Case of Turkish Interest in Africa. International Journal: Canada’s Journal of Global Policy Analysis 68 (1): 187–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kösebalaban, Hasan. 2011. Turkish Foreign Policy: Islam, Nationalism, and Globalization. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lammers, Ellen. 2007. How Will the Beijing Consensus Benefit Africa? The Broker, March 22.
  35. Library of Congress. Regulation of Foreign Aid.
  36. Lum, Thomas, et al. 2009. China’s Foreign Aid Activities in Africa, Latin America and Southeast Asia. Congessional Research Service Report, (RL34620).Google Scholar
  37. Mehmetcik, Hakan. 2018. Turkey and India in the Context of Foreign Aid to Africa. In Middle Powers in the Global Governance: The Rise of Turkey, ed. Emel Parlar Dal. Palgrave Macmillan.
  38. Michalowski, Thomasz. 2010. China’s Economic Activities in Africa: Trade, Foreign Direct Investment and Aid. International Journal of Emerging and Transition Economies 3 (1): 59–78.Google Scholar
  39. Minister of Foreign Affairs. Turkey’s Development Cooperation: General Characteristics and the Least Development Countries (LDC) Aspect.
  40. Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Turkey’s Development Cooperation.
  41. Moran, Michael. 2001. Cyprus and the 1960 Accords: Nationalism and Internationalism. Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs 6 (2): 1.Google Scholar
  42. Naim, Moises. 2007. Rogue Aid. Foreign Policy 159: 95–96.Google Scholar
  43. Nganje, Fritz. 2014. Two-Way Socialization Between Traditional and Emerging Donors Critical for Effective Development Cooperation. Africa Up Close. Retrieved from
  44. OECD. 2013. Dataset: Aid (ODA) Disbursements to Countries and Regions [DAC2a].
  45. ———. 2017. Query Wizard for International Development Statistics.
  46. ———. Official Development Assistance – Definition and Coverage.
  47. ———. Paris Declaration and Accra Agenda for Action.
  48. Oruç, Hüseyin, and Oğuzhan, Köse. 2007. Human Rights and Freedoms, the Humanitarian Aid Foundation (IHH) and its Activities. Common Strategic Vision Development Project Diplomatic Representatives of Turkey and African Countries, 3rd Workshop Final Report: ‘Development Aids in African Countries and Turkish Civil Society Organizations’. İstanbul: Tasam.Google Scholar
  49. Özkan, Mehmet. 2010. What Drives Turkey’s Involvement in Africa? Review of African Political Economy 37 (126): 533–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. ———. 2013. Turkey’s Religious and Socio-Political Depth in Africa. LSE IDEAS Special Report 16: 45–50.Google Scholar
  51. Özkan, Mehmet, and Birol Akgün. 2010. Turkey’s opening to Africa. Journal of Modern African Studies 48 (4): 525–546.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ozkan, Mehmet, and Serhat Orakci. 2015. Viewpoint: Turkey as a “Political” Actor in Africa – An Assessment of Turkish Involvement in Somalia. Journal of Eastern African Studies 9 (2): 343–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Parlar Dal, Emel. 2018. Profiling Middle Powers in Global Governance and the Turkish Case: An Introduction. In Middle Powers in the Global Governance: The Rise of Turkey, ed. Emel Parlar Dal. Palgrave Macmillan.
  54. Parlar Dal, Emel, and Ali Murat Kurşun. 2018. Turkey in the UN Funding System: A Comparative Analysis with the BRICS Countries (2010–2013). In Middle Powers in the Global Governance: The Rise of Turkey, ed. Emel Parlar Dal. Palgrave Macmillan.
  55. Power, Marcus, and Giles Mohan. 2010. Towards a Critical Geopolitics of China’s Engagement with African Development. Geopolitics 15 (3): 462–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ramo, Joshua Cooper. 2004. The Beijing Consensus. London: The Foreign Policy Centre.Google Scholar
  57. Shinn, David. 2015. Turkey’s Engagement in Sub-Saharan Africa: Shifting Alliances and Strategic Diversification. London: Chatnam House.Google Scholar
  58. Stahl, Anna Katharina. 2016. China’s Relations with Sub-Saharan Africa. IAI Working Paper 16/22. Rome.Google Scholar
  59. Strange, et al. 2013. China’s Development Finance to Africa: A Media-Based Approach to Data Collection. Center for Global Development, Working Paper 323, April.Google Scholar
  60. Sun, Yun. 2014. Africa in China’s New Foreign Aid White Paper, July 16.
  61. Sun, Yun. 2015. China’s foreign aid reform and implications for Africa, July 1.
  62. The Economist. 2008. Oil, Politics and Corruption, September 18.
  63. The State Council. 2011. The People’s Republic of China, White Paper.
  64. ———. 2014. The People’s Republic of China, White Paper.
  65. TIKA. 2013. Official Development Assistance Report.
  66. Timokhina, Olga. 2014. Chinese Foreign Direct Investment in Africa in Corporate Social Responsibility Context. Maastricht School of Management Working Paper (29).Google Scholar
  67. Tull, Dennis. 2006. China’s Engagement in Africa: Scope, Significance and Consequences. The Journal of Modern African Studies 44 (3): 459–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Ujvari, Balazs. 2012. The Changing Rules of Multilateral Development Assistance: Does China Undermine the Current Aid Paradigm or Succumb to It? Atlantic Community.Google Scholar
  69. Williams, Victoria. Foreign Aid. Encyclopedia Britannica.
  70. Yeşiltaş, Murat. 2013. The Transformation of the Geopolitical Vision in Turkish Foreign Policy. Turkish Studies 14 (4): 661–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ferit Belder
    • 1
  • Samiratou Dipama
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Political SciencesMarmara UniversityIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.Marmara University’s European Union InstituteIstanbulTurkey

Personalised recommendations